Sunday, September 23, 2018

Feminicide across Europe: Malta

                                                   


To date, Malta does not have an official body/entity which collects femicide data, other than the Police and, to the best of my knowledge, there it is classified as homicide. Moreover, nor has the definition of femicide been inserted into the criminal code. The Commission on Domestic Violence collects newspaper articles following the murder of a woman. For example, this year (2016), there were two such deaths in Malta; one in July and another in September.
 (by Marceline Naudi and Katya Unah)   


In order to fight feminicide/femicide, various Latin American and European countries have adopted increasingly specific laws and legal instruments that penalize feminicide. The ratification of the Belém do Pará Convention1 in Latin America and the entry into force of the Istanbul Convention2  in Europe, demonstrate an increasingly stronger international commitment against this kind of violence. The establishment of the Bi-regional Dialogue on Gender by the European Union (EU) and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), as well as the adoption of the Urgent Resolution on Feminicide in the European Union and Latin America3 by the Euro-Latin American Parliamentary Assembly (EuroLat) also express this commitment.    


However, legal norms, agreements, and international dialogues alone are not sufficient for the eradication of violence against women, nor its most extreme manifestation, feminicide.


Traditionally, States were only responsible for their own actions or those of their agents, but international public law has evolved and currently, the principle of due diligence makes the State responsible for the prevention, investigation, and prosecution of violence, regardless of who commits the crime. The duty of due diligence obliges States to enter the private sphere, where historically, they have not intervened, but where the majority of cases of violence against women occur. 



Therefore, it is the duty of the State to take all necessary measures to prevent human rights violations, such as feminicide, before they occur. This means, on the one hand, adopting pertinent laws and policies to prevent, investigate, prosecute, and punish those guilty of abuse, and on the other hand, successfully implement them. 

Patricia Jiménez, Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung – European Union, Brussels


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Friday, September 21, 2018

Feminicide across Europe: Macedonia


Generally, there is lack of data information and statistics on femicide in the Republic of Macedonia. This is due to the fact that is no legally binding definition of femicide in the legal acts of the Republic of Macedonia. The definition of homicide is covered under Criminal law. Some changes have been made in this definition due to the implementation of the Istanbul Convention.

The femicide data statistics can be obtained as follows: 
1. Through the general report by the Ministry of Internal Aaffairs on homicide data statistics. This report renders the question of femicide problem invisible, although it is reported that men are perpetrators of the homicide crimes. As to the motives for committing the murders, most of them are reported as occurring in the family circle, because of disrupted family relationships, with mostly women as victims. 
 2. Some statistical data on femicide can be obtained from the Ministry for Labour and Social Affairs through the National Strategy for preventing family violence and homicide, as the most extreme form of family violence. However, the data for femicide is not visible despite the fact that it is reported that most of the victims are female partners.  3. Unfortunately, femicide statistics are also not covered by the National Statistics Authority at the moment, due to the lack of research and official information provided
 (by Biljana Chavkoska and Viktorija Chavkoska)


In order to fight feminicide/femicide, various Latin American and European countries have adopted increasingly specific laws and legal instruments that penalize feminicide. The ratification of the Belém do Pará Convention1 in Latin America and the entry into force of the Istanbul Convention2  in Europe, demonstrate an increasingly stronger international commitment against this kind of violence. The establishment of the Bi-regional Dialogue on Gender by the European Union (EU) and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), as well as the adoption of the Urgent Resolution on Feminicide in the European Union and Latin America3 by the Euro-Latin American Parliamentary Assembly (EuroLat) also express this commitment.    


However, legal norms, agreements, and international dialogues alone are not sufficient for the eradication of violence against women, nor its most extreme manifestation, feminicide.


Traditionally, States were only responsible for their own actions or those of their agents, but international public law has evolved and currently, the principle of due diligence makes the State responsible for the prevention, investigation, and prosecution of violence, regardless of who commits the crime. The duty of due diligence obliges States to enter the private sphere, where historically, they have not intervened, but where the majority of cases of violence against women occur. 



Therefore, it is the duty of the State to take all necessary measures to prevent human rights violations, such as feminicide, before they occur. This means, on the one hand, adopting pertinent laws and policies to prevent, investigate, prosecute, and punish those guilty of abuse, and on the other hand, successfully implement them. 

Patricia Jiménez, Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung – European Union, Brussels


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Wednesday, September 19, 2018

Feminicide across Europe: Lithuania


 Femicide as a consequence of intimate partner violence has been mainly utilized by women’s NGOs, which advocate for legal reform and policy changes in Lithuania. Data on femicide are generally collected under statistics for homicide.

1 Sources
The most reliable source on femicide is the crime statistics collected by the Ministry of Interior. The Department of Information Technology and Communications under the Ministry of Interior (DITC), in the Ministry of Interior, collects data nationally and manages its collection and systematisation.

Data includes cases of crimes, victims and offenders, as well as the beginning of the pre-trial investigation under the Penal Code. Records from police, prosecutors and judges of private prosecution cases should appear in the register. The national standard for recording the administrative data is the Order of the Minister of the Interior on Regulations of Institutional Register of Criminal Acts (LR Vidaus reikalų ministro įsakymas "Nusiklatimo veikų žinybinio reigstro nuostatai").5 The DITC refers to the collected administrative data to generate the statistics for crimes. It is possible to identify the numbers of victims and offenders according to gender and family relations in these crime statistics. DITS manages the database on any pre-trial investigations, in accordance with to the Penal code. Crimes reported by police to the judicial system include data on homicides by sex of a victim and family relations. Thus, statistics on femicide are identifiable. The DITC publishes these statistics on a specially designated website for violence against women, operated by the Ministry of Interior (http://www.bukstipri.lt/lt/statistika )

2 Definition
The term Femicide is hardly used in academic research. However, femicide might be retrievable under the Art. 129 of the Penal Code, which identifies sentences in cases of homicide. The same article defines the relationships between an offender and victim, in terms of close relative or family member.
 (by Vilana Pilinkaité)

In order to fight feminicide/femicide, various Latin American and European countries have adopted increasingly specific laws and legal instruments that penalize feminicide. The ratification of the Belém do Pará Convention1 in Latin America and the entry into force of the Istanbul Convention2  in Europe, demonstrate an increasingly stronger international commitment against this kind of violence. The establishment of the Bi-regional Dialogue on Gender by the European Union (EU) and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), as well as the adoption of the Urgent Resolution on Feminicide in the European Union and Latin America3 by the Euro-Latin American Parliamentary Assembly (EuroLat) also express this commitment.    


However, legal norms, agreements, and international dialogues alone are not sufficient for the eradication of violence against women, nor its most extreme manifestation, feminicide.


Traditionally, States were only responsible for their own actions or those of their agents, but international public law has evolved and currently, the principle of due diligence makes the State responsible for the prevention, investigation, and prosecution of violence, regardless of who commits the crime. The duty of due diligence obliges States to enter the private sphere, where historically, they have not intervened, but where the majority of cases of violence against women occur. 



Therefore, it is the duty of the State to take all necessary measures to prevent human rights violations, such as feminicide, before they occur. This means, on the one hand, adopting pertinent laws and policies to prevent, investigate, prosecute, and punish those guilty of abuse, and on the other hand, successfully implement them. 


Patricia Jiménez, Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung – European Union, Brussels


https://eu.boell.org/sites/default/files/feminicide_eng.pdf
https://www.um.edu.mt/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/308017/March_9_Country_resources.pdf
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Monday, September 17, 2018

Feminicide across Europe: Italy



The notion of femicide has circulated in Italy since 2004, when the European SARA and subsequently FEAR projects (both funded by the Daphne framework) were implemented. As a result of these projects, publications (Baldry, 2006) and conferences (2005) disseminated the term. In 2006, Spinelli authored a book bearing that title (Spinelli 2006). For the last decade, due to social, political, and NGO’s movements, the term has been used intensively, and even exploited by the media, with the aim of raising awareness on the topic. Debates are still ongoing as to whether the term should be used, or even if there should be a ‘dedicated’ legal term identifying these crimes. Attention peaks on specific dates in the year (8th March, International Women’s Day and 25th November, International

day against violence against women), when most of the media will discuss the issue and conferences are organized. Due to the fact that there is one femicide every three or four days in Italy, on average, media attention responds cyclically, focusing on the crime in the news. Social perception for the rates of violence against women is shaped by these waves of media response, together with social and political attention

1 Sources
Given that the definition of femicide is not always consistent between agencies and social contexts, in relation to ‘counting’ the victims, differences could also emerge. With this limit in mind, we can identify three bodies in Italy that collect data on gender-related killing of women in the country:
a) The most accurate and long-standing database on femicide is gathered by EURES (Center for Economic and Social Research). Since 1990, this private research center has collected data from media sources on voluntary homicide and it validates this information against the Ministry of Interior source that releases official data at the end of each year. Since 2000, EURES has also focused on femicide, by systematically collecting an extensive number of variables (inter alia: age, marital status, education, employment, etc.) related to both the victim and the perpetrator (Piacenti & Pasquali 2015). www.eures.it .  b) Casa delle donne per non subire violenza (Women's Home) in Bologna is part of the National Networks of DiRe shelters. This is an independent, women’s only NGO, established in the 1980s and aiming at preventing and eliminating all forms of violence against women. They publish and annotate data, but this activity does not appear to be a continuous endeavour. www.casadonne.it  c) Since 2014, the Ministry of Interior publishes a short report annually on intimate and family homicide. http://www.interno.gov.it/sites/default/files/dati_polizia_criminale_omicidi_violenza_di_genere.pdf d) The National Institute of Statistics gathers data on homicide, based on data from the Ministry of Justice and the Interior.

2 Definition
In reliable sources, femicide, although not used in the legal framework, is best defined as the killing of a woman because of her gender. Most cases refer to killing by an intimate partner. However, other killings of women would be included (e.g. a woman who is raped and then killed, an exploited woman or prostitute who is killed, other family related murders, could fall under this category). ‘Partner’ or ex-partner includes the current or a previous husband, living and dating partner, lover, occasional partner. The expression "family femicide" is also used to indicate killing by a relative, such as a father, son, or other.
 (by Anna C. Baldry, Consuelo Corradi and Augusto Gnisci)

In order to fight feminicide/femicide, various Latin American and European countries have adopted increasingly specific laws and legal instruments that penalize feminicide. The ratification of the Belém do Pará Convention1 in Latin America and the entry into force of the Istanbul Convention2  in Europe, demonstrate an increasingly stronger international commitment against this kind of violence. The establishment of the Bi-regional Dialogue on Gender by the European Union (EU) and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), as well as the adoption of the Urgent Resolution on Feminicide in the European Union and Latin America3 by the Euro-Latin American Parliamentary Assembly (EuroLat) also express this commitment.    


However, legal norms, agreements, and international dialogues alone are not sufficient for the eradication of violence against women, nor its most extreme manifestation, feminicide.


Traditionally, States were only responsible for their own actions or those of their agents, but international public law has evolved and currently, the principle of due diligence makes the State responsible for the prevention, investigation, and prosecution of violence, regardless of who commits the crime. The duty of due diligence obliges States to enter the private sphere, where historically, they have not intervened, but where the majority of cases of violence against women occur. 



Therefore, it is the duty of the State to take all necessary measures to prevent human rights violations, such as feminicide, before they occur. This means, on the one hand, adopting pertinent laws and policies to prevent, investigate, prosecute, and punish those guilty of abuse, and on the other hand, successfully implement them. 

Patricia Jiménez, Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung – European Union, Brussels


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Saturday, September 15, 2018

Feminicide across Europe: Israel



The notion of “femicide”, as such, is practically absent from Israel. In recent years, though, awareness to  “the murder of women” or “women murder” by their (normally) male family members is well evident in public discourse. Overall, the media plays a key role in Israel in disseminating the notion of “women murder” as a social phenomenon, which should be condemned. In addition, Israeli academics are among the leader scholars in the field of femicide. Nowadays, it is widely accepted that the murder of women by their family members warrants special attention. 

1 Sources 
Up until the last 5 years, apart from sporadic media-initiated projects, no data collection of femicide was available in Israel. The parliamentary Committee on Women’s Rights initiated, 5 years ago, a special report on violence against women, whereby femicide is supposed to be reported annually (https://www.knesset.gov.il/mmm/data/pdf/m03643.pdf). Despite being highly accessible to the public, this report was subject to meager dissemination efforts outside Israeli Parliament. After 2015, there was no systematic and formal data on femicide in Israel, just a statement by the Israeli Parliament with statistics that they said were gathered from the police (https://www.knesset.gov.il/mmm/data/pdf/m03849.pdf), but in fact differed from what the police reported.  
In addition, the Israeli Ministry of Internal Security, in its annual report on violence, now features a specific and distinct section on women victims of murder. However, no special attention is dedicated to the reasons for having these women murdered, and the report is laconic and de-contextualized on the topic. Another example for this disregard is shown in the Israeli police’s official Violence Report of 201 4 . d definitions for murder, noneThe report introduces no less than nine(!) different types an of which relates specifically to the murder of women.     

2 Definition 
The criminal code assigns no specific clause to femicide, and femicide murderers are charged with the general murder offence. In other reliable sources, femicide is mainly associated with the killing of a woman by an intimate partner, broadly defined. Highly prevalent as well is the expression "family honor killing", which is used to indicate killing by a relative, in non-Jewish communities in Israel, under a claim that a woman has manifested no respect to her family by being promiscuous. This type of femicide is perceived as a category of its own and is ultimately associated with killing a woman “due to her gender”, a characterization not easily assigned to other forms of femicide.  
  (by Yifat Bitton and Shalva Weil) 



In order to fight feminicide/femicide, various Latin American and European countries have adopted increasingly specific laws and legal instruments that penalize feminicide. The ratification of the Belém do Pará Convention1 in Latin America and the entry into force of the Istanbul Convention2  in Europe, demonstrate an increasingly stronger international commitment against this kind of violence. The establishment of the Bi-regional Dialogue on Gender by the European Union (EU) and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), as well as the adoption of the Urgent Resolution on Feminicide in the European Union and Latin America3 by the Euro-Latin American Parliamentary Assembly (EuroLat) also express this commitment.    


However, legal norms, agreements, and international dialogues alone are not sufficient for the eradication of violence against women, nor its most extreme manifestation, feminicide.


Traditionally, States were only responsible for their own actions or those of their agents, but international public law has evolved and currently, the principle of due diligence makes the State responsible for the prevention, investigation, and prosecution of violence, regardless of who commits the crime. The duty of due diligence obliges States to enter the private sphere, where historically, they have not intervened, but where the majority of cases of violence against women occur. 



Therefore, it is the duty of the State to take all necessary measures to prevent human rights violations, such as feminicide, before they occur. This means, on the one hand, adopting pertinent laws and policies to prevent, investigate, prosecute, and punish those guilty of abuse, and on the other hand, successfully implement them. 


Patricia Jiménez, Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung – European Union, Brussels


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Thursday, September 13, 2018

Feminicide across Europe: Ireland



1 Background  
The word femicide is rarely used in Ireland; intimate partner murder or homicide are more common terms in use.  
2 Sources 
Data on femicide in Ireland are (potentially) available from the following sources:  

a) Central Statistics Office - An Garda Síochána (Irish Police Force) crime statistics are collected via the PULSE (Police Using Leading Systems Effectively) system and are collated and published by the Central Statistics Office (CSO) Crime and Justice section on a regular basis. Data from annual and quarterly homicide offences can be dis-aggregated by sex of victim. Currently (September 2016), homicide data cannot be dis-aggregated by sex of perpetrator and relationship of homicide victim to perpetrator; however, this is anticipated to change in the near future when a more comprehensive data breakdown will become available in relation to crime statistics in Ireland. 

b) Courts Services – Murder legal cases in Ireland are heard in the Central Criminal Court. A review of relevant murder trial proceedings and sentencing is possible, to determine cases of femicide through information on the Courts Service website. However, this data is not collated as femicide statistics.  

c) Coroners’ Courts - In all cases of homicide, an inquest is held by the relevant coroner. Data on number of Deaths Reported, Post Mortems and Inquests held are reported on an annual basis by each Coroners office in Ireland; these are collated into national statistics by the Coroner Service Implementation Team. Currently (September 2016), these statistics are not dis-aggregated by sex of the deceased, nor by relationship of the deceased to anyone involved in the homicide. As a result, data in relation to femicide is not available through national Coroners’ statistics.  

d) Maternal Death Enquiry - Data on all maternal deaths (deaths during pregnancy, within 42 days of the end of the pregnancy and up to one year post-partum) are collected and analysed by the Confidential Maternal Death Enquiry Ireland Office (MDE). Deaths as a result of femicide during this time period are included in this data analysis and would be classified as "Indirect deaths". Data from Ireland is collated with data from England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland and published as triennial reports by MBRRACE-UK. The 2015 MBRRACE report contained a specific chapter on "Learning from homicides and women who experienced domestic abuse". Where known, the perpetrator of the homicide is documented as a family member, stranger or (ex)partner in the report.  

e) Women's Aid Female Homicide Media Watch - Women’s Aid are an Irish domestic violence, non-governmental organisation (NGO), which has collated media reported cases of femicide in Ireland since 1996. They report on the number of women murders, the location of murder, sex of perpetrator and relationship of victim to perpetrator of the murder. This data source and subsequent figures are referenced in medical and social care guidelines developed by the Irish College of General Practitioners and the Health Service Executive.  
See: https://www.womensaid.ie/about/policy/natintstats.html#X-201209171232213  

3 Definition  
The term “femicide” is rarely used in Ireland and does not appear in recent and relevant statutory national policy or guideline documents, nor in the Irish Statute Book (collection of Irish legislation). It is briefly referenced in the Women’s Health Council 2007, Violence Against Women and Health report. Instead, the terms: female homicide, intimate partner homicide or homicide/murder are used, as many of the statutory national policy and guideline documents and research adopt a gender neutral phrasing to domestic violence terminology. Holt defines femicide in her 2007 academic paper as “…the killing of a woman by her intimate partner or ex-partner.” (Irish Journal of Family Law 10(4)). 


 (by Siobàn O’Brien Green) 

In order to fight feminicide/femicide, various Latin American and European countries have adopted increasingly specific laws and legal instruments that penalize feminicide. The ratification of the Belém do Pará Convention1 in Latin America and the entry into force of the Istanbul Convention2  in Europe, demonstrate an increasingly stronger international commitment against this kind of violence. The establishment of the Bi-regional Dialogue on Gender by the European Union (EU) and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), as well as the adoption of the Urgent Resolution on Feminicide in the European Union and Latin America3 by the Euro-Latin American Parliamentary Assembly (EuroLat) also express this commitment.    


However, legal norms, agreements, and international dialogues alone are not sufficient for the eradication of violence against women, nor its most extreme manifestation, feminicide.


Traditionally, States were only responsible for their own actions or those of their agents, but international public law has evolved and currently, the principle of due diligence makes the State responsible for the prevention, investigation, and prosecution of violence, regardless of who commits the crime. The duty of due diligence obliges States to enter the private sphere, where historically, they have not intervened, but where the majority of cases of violence against women occur. 



Therefore, it is the duty of the State to take all necessary measures to prevent human rights violations, such as feminicide, before they occur. This means, on the one hand, adopting pertinent laws and policies to prevent, investigate, prosecute, and punish those guilty of abuse, and on the other hand, successfully implement them. 


Patricia Jiménez, Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung – European Union, Brussels


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Tuesday, September 11, 2018

Feminicide across Europe: Iceland


Femicide as a concept has hardly gained any ground in Iceland. The term has only recently come into public use by the Icelandic members of the COST project on femicide.  
9.1 Sources 
Data on femicide as such is not collected in Iceland. However, three databases with information on murders provide the possibility to generate data on femicide in Iceland.  
a) Police data. The Police keep a closed data base on all crimes, including murders. This database can be consulted on request, i.e. access is limited, except for specific research use.  
b) Open source data. On Icelandic Wikipedia, a list of murders going back centuries in time can be accessed. According to verbal information, the list was created and is maintained by a lawyer. However, not all murder cases, including cases of femicide, appear on that list and the term femicide is not used. 
c) A closed database, called “Fons juries” exists (http://fonsjuris.is/about.php), which is not public, but private. People are required to pay for access to data in this database. The database includes all verdicts from 1999, which have taken place in Iceland. All the cases of femicide can be retrieved from that database, according to a legal definition of a murder in the General Criminal Law [Almenn hegningarlög] nr. 19/1940 (paragraph 211) and severe physical assault (paragraph 218), which might include assaults that result in death. This database does not include cases dismissed for lack of evidence, although there is a suspicion that a murder or femicide has occurred. Those kinds of cases are not included in the verdicts. 

9.2 Definition 
In reliable sources, femicide is best defined as the killing of a woman by an intimate partner. Partner is defined in a broad way, to include the husband, living and dating partner, lover; former husband, former partner and former lovers are also included in the definition. The expression "family femicide" is also used to indicate killing by a relative, such as a father, son, or other. 

 (by Freidis Freysteinsdottir and Halldora Gunnarsdottir)



In order to fight feminicide/femicide, various Latin American and European countries have adopted increasingly specific laws and legal instruments that penalize feminicide. The ratification of the Belém do Pará Convention1 in Latin America and the entry into force of the Istanbul Convention2  in Europe, demonstrate an increasingly stronger international commitment against this kind of violence. The establishment of the Bi-regional Dialogue on Gender by the European Union (EU) and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), as well as the adoption of the Urgent Resolution on Feminicide in the European Union and Latin America3 by the Euro-Latin American Parliamentary Assembly (EuroLat) also express this commitment.    


However, legal norms, agreements, and international dialogues alone are not sufficient for the eradication of violence against women, nor its most extreme manifestation, feminicide.

Traditionally, States were only responsible for their own actions or those of their agents, but international public law has evolved and currently, the principle of due diligence makes the State responsible for the prevention, investigation, and prosecution of violence, regardless of who commits the crime. The duty of due diligence obliges States to enter the private sphere, where historically, they have not intervened, but where the majority of cases of violence against women occur. 


Therefore, it is the duty of the State to take all necessary measures to prevent human rights violations, such as feminicide, before they occur. This means, on the one hand, adopting pertinent laws and policies to prevent, investigate, prosecute, and punish those guilty of abuse, and on the other hand, successfully implement them. 


Patricia Jiménez, Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung – European Union, Brussels


https://eu.boell.org/sites/default/files/feminicide_eng.pdf

https://www.um.edu.mt/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/308017/March_9_Country_resources.pdf
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