Wednesday, March 23, 2022

Gender-differentiated climate, environmental and disaster impacts 2/

 The twenty-first century constellation of economic, environmental and climate crises is largely attributable to the historic patterns of unsustainable production, consumption and land use, exploitation of marine, coastal and terrestrial resources, wealth accumulation and the destructive dependency on fossil fuels. These patterns were initiated by industrialized countries, whereas the impacts are more acutely felt by the less affluent nations. These unsustainable patterns are at the root of many inequalities, including gender inequalities. Scientific projections on rising average global temperatures mean that ecosystems and people’s interaction with them will suffer permanent changes even if global emission reduction targets are met.1 Those least responsible for climate change are most adversely affected by it and women and girls in poor countries disproportionately so. While the impacts of COVID-19 were expected to lead to 150 million more extreme poor, climate change and climate related disasters are expected to push an additional 132 million people into extreme poverty by 2030 – unless profound and targeted climate action is taken and folded into pandemic response and recovery measures.2 

 Human actions are resulting in a disastrous loss of biodiversity and endangering the earth’s interconnected ecosystems, human life, settlements, sources of food, clean water and air, and demolishing natural defences against extreme weather and disasters. Globally, indigenous peoples, local communities, the rural and urban poor, and women and girls – who are the most affected by land and resource tenure insecurity and environmental degradation – disproportionately suffer the effects of biodiversity loss.

 Climate and environmental impacts on the earth’s oceans are equally or more acute. Oceans have absorbed more than 90 percent of excess heat from global warming and absorb around 30 percent of human-induced carbon dioxide emissions, leading to species extinction and disruptions of marine ecosystems as well as people’s livelihoods that depend on them.3 An ecosystem approach to mitigation and adaptation initiatives involves the conservation and restoration of coastal and marine ecosystems, including mangroves, salt marshes and seagrasses. In addition to restoring ocean biodiversity, the protection of marine areas is motivated by the fact that oceansserve as major carbon sinks; marine ecosystems provide protection against storm surges and sea level rise as well as the resources that sustain communities in coastal and marine areas, particularly women from different marginalized groups, including indigenous peoples, and Small Island Developing States (SIDS).

 Therefore, all environmental efforts must take into account the commercialization of oceans, plundering of natural resources, pollution, global wealth inequalities, and the striking gaps in ocean governance, with different legal instruments governing different uses of the ocean (shipping, fisheries, deep sea mining, etc.), in addition to the impacts of neoliberal economic policies, binding free trade and investment agreements, and corporate capture of the blue economy.

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Monday, March 21, 2022

Report of the Expert Group Sixty-sixth session of the Commission on the Status of Women 1/

The Expert Group Meeting (EGM) in preparation for the sixty-sixth session of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) considered the priority theme of “Achieving gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls in the context of climate change, environmental and disaster risk reduction policies and programmes.” The theme is of critical significance and timeliness given the entrenchment of gender inequalities as consequence of intensifying and interlinked crises – climate change, environmental degradation, biodiversity loss, pollution, disasters and zoonotic pandemics such as COVID-19 – and the concomitant marginalization of the voice, agency, participation and leadership of women, girls and gender diverse people and their movements from policy, governance, and decision-making processes and responses to these global challenges. The Expert Group discussed the evolving normative frameworks and bodies of international, regional, national and local laws, policies, research, and practices related to the priority theme, and examined the extent to which gender has been integrated into key approaches to climate change, environment and disaster risk reduction. 

The Expert Group highlighted that the plethora of new and emerging terms and approaches in this broad arena – nature-based solutions, green economy, blue economy, green jobs, climate-smart agriculture, co-benefits, among others – merit further discussion. They may mask business-as-usual unsustainable practices or, without adherence to human rights-based, genderresponsive and socially inclusive standards and safeguards, may sidestep or ignore the knowledge and practices of women and marginalized groups across generations for the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. The EGM called for careful analysis of such approaches and practices and affirmed human rights-based and gender-transformative strategies. These strategies should seek to target the intertwined root causes of climate and environmental crises and gender inequalities, while ensuring those most affected are involved in the design and implementation of responses and solutions and equal sharing of benefits.

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Monday, October 25, 2021


By Chris Kolmar - Sep. 15, 2021


Research Summary. Across the United States, child care accessibility places a large burden on the economy and the labor force. Now, closures and mandates brought on by the global pandemic are causing increased hardship when it comes to finding quality child care.


  • Annual economic losses because of child care translate to $6.9 billion in lost tax revenue, $12.7 billion in lost business revenue, and $36.9 billion in lost individual earnings.
  • In 2020, 57% of working families spent more than $10,000 on child care.
  • 51% of Americans live in communities classified as child care deserts.
  • On average, Americans with children spend at least 10% of their household income on child care.
  • The child care industry in the United States is valued at $54 billion.


  • 27% of families who have difficulty accessing child care can not find an open child care slot.

Roughly half of Americans have trouble finding child care, and 27% of them say it’s because there are not enough open child care slots. As a result, two-thirds of parents in the U.S. have very few — often only one — child care options.

  • On average, it costs $340 per week to send a child to a child care or daycare center.

As reported by the Center for American Progress, in the United States, it costs $300 per week to send a child to a family care center, $340 per week to send a child to a child care or daycare center, and $612 per week for a nanny.

  • Roughly 30% of U.S. children under the age of five can not access a child care slot.

According to a 2020 study that analyzes 25 states across the nation, 8.4 million children under the age of five needed child care. However, only about 5.9 million child care slots were available. Thus, roughly 2.7 million children, or 31.7%, could not access quality child care due to a limited number of child care slots.


  • Child care is more likely to impact a mother’s career than it is to impact a father’s career.

According to a survey conducted by the Center for American Progress, mothers with young children are 40% more likely than fathers to report that child care issues have negatively impacted their careers.

  • About 20% of stay-at-home mothers would enter the workforce if they had child care assistance.

According to numbers published by American Progress, 20% of mothers who do not currently work would look for a job if they had better access to quality child care.

An additional 42% of working mothers would look for a higher-paying job, and 29% of working mothers would seek additional schooling or training to help them advance in their careers.

  • The cost of child care has led to a 13% decline in the employment of mothers.

Over the past two decades, women’s participation in the labor force has been declining, and rising child care costs are partly to blame. The United States’ lack of federal child care and paid family leave policies is tied to at least one-third of the decline in female employment.

  • In the United States, 69% of young mothers work.

According to the Center for American Progress, nearly 70% of young mothers participate in the labor force. The center also found that fewer mothers in the workforce are directly associated with child care deserts.

  • About 42% of mothers are sole or primary breadwinners for their household.

Overall, 70% of American mothers participate in the labor force, and roughly 42% of them are the sole or primary breadwinners in their homes. This rate is even higher among Black mothers, with 71% of them serving as the sole or primary breadwinners for their household.


  • Roughly 30% of infants and toddlers go to home-based child care facilities.

In the United States, 29.5% of infants and toddlers attend home-based child care facilities. Meanwhile, 37.7% of infants and toddlers are exclusively cared for by a parent or guardian.

  • 58% of working parents rely on child care centers.

According to national estimates from the National Household Education Survey, 58% of working parents with children five years old and younger — or about 6.38 million parents across the nation — use center-based child care options.

The survey also found that of the 11 million working parents in the U.S., 31% of them do not rely on any outside child care, 25% of them rely on non-relatives for child care, and 47% rely on relatives for child care.

  • U.S. businesses lose, on average, $12.7 billion each year due to child care challenges.

Data shows that employees with children three years old and younger cost their employers roughly $1,150 per year because of inadequate child care. With 11 million working parents across the U.S., this equates to a total business loss of $12.7 billion.


  • The large majority of working parents have reduced their work hours, at some point, for their kids.

As a result of child care problems, 63% of working parents have left work earlier than normal, 56% of working parents have been late for work, 55% of working parents have missed a full day of work, and 54% of working parents have reported being distracted at work, according to data published by Ready Nation.

In addition, of the parents surveyed, one in five of them said they have been reprimanded at least once by a supervisor, and one in seven of them said they have had their pay or hours reduced as a result of child care affecting their productivity levels at work.

  • More than half of U.S. families spent more than $10,000 on child care in 2020.

According to a survey by, 57% of families across the United States spent more than $10,000 on child care last year. In 2021, 59% of families are budgeting to spend more than $10,000 in yearly child care costs.

These numbers make child care more expensive than college, with the average in-state tuition ringing up at $9,580 annually.

  • The current child care system places a $98 billion burden on the U.S. economy.

According to data reported by Ready Nation, working parents lose an estimated $8,940 each year in lost earnings, reduced participation in the workforce, and lower returns on professional experience.

Across the nation, there are approximately 11 million working parents with children under the age of three. As such, the current child care system results in a total average annual economic cost of $98 billion.


  • The United States is on track to permanently lose up to 4.5 million child care slots due to the pandemic.

According to Teach for America, more than 4 million child care slots could be lost in the coming months due to COVID-19. Moreover, the large majority of these lost slots will affect low-income families and people of color.

  • Prior to the pandemic, at least two-thirds of U.S. families relied on some form of child care.

Before the pandemic, the majority of parents with children under the age of six worked and thus relied on child care to some extent. About 22% of all parents with young children say that they can not work, either in person or remotely, without child care.

  • Child care is more expensive now compared to before the pandemic.

According to a report published by, 72% of families say that child care is more expensive than it was before the global COVID-19 pandemic. Meanwhile, only 6% of families report that it is less expensive.

Increased costs are widely due to the elevated safety precautions that have been put in place at child care centers across the nation.

  • Quality child care is much harder to find now compared to before the pandemic.

Roughly 46% of families in the United States said that they have a harder time finding child care now compared to pre-pandemic. As such, many families are turning to nannies instead of daycare centers for their child care needs.

Today, the cost of hiring a nanny is only $14 more per week than the cost of having two kids in a child care center. In 2019, it cost $239 more weekly to hire a nanny.

  • The majority of U.S. child care centers have not yet fully reopened.

According to, of the 51% of American families who used child care or daycare center before the pandemic, 61% say that the center is not yet fully open and operating. An additional 14% of survey families who used child care centers before the pandemic said that their child care provider is open, but not fully.

  • 62% of families are more concerned about the cost of child care now compared to before the pandemic.

Compared to pre-pandemic, 62% of families are more concerned, while 10% of families are less concerned about the cost of child care. Of the 62% who are more concerned, 43% said it was because of the increased cost of child care due to safety protocols, and 32% said it was because they had to shift to a different child care arrangement.


In the United States, roughly 44% of Black families, 50% of White families, and 57% of Hispanic families live in a child care desert and thus have a harder time finding child care.

Among higher-income neighborhoods, only 43% of families struggle to find child care. This is compared to 54% of families who live in lower-income neighborhoods and have a hard time accessing child care.

  • More than 70% of mothers in the United States work.

According to labor statistics, in 2020, 71.2% of mothers with children under the age of 18 participated in the labor force. This number was down from 72.3% in 2019. For comparison, in 2020, 92.3% of fathers with children under the age of 18 participated in the labor force.

  • Black mothers have the highest rates of workforce participation out of all mothers in the United States.

According to numbers released by American Progress, 80% of Black women with children aged six through 17 work — the highest rate of all other racial and ethnic groups analyzed. In addition, the labor force participation rate for Black women has increased by 23% since 1989.

  • Child care is harder to access in the Western United States and rural areas.

In small towns and rural areas across the nation, roughly 26% of families report that finding a child care provider is very difficult. For comparison, only 10% of families who live in the suburbs and 11% of families who live in major cities report having a very difficult time finding a quality child care provider.

In addition, an estimated 20% of families in the Western United States lost their child care provider, either because they are permanently closed or unavailable, due to the pandemic.

  • Quality child care is especially hard to come by in Utah, Nevada, Hawaii, West Virginia, and New York.

Utah, Nevada, Hawaii, West Virginia, and New York have the highest rates of child care deserts by the state in the United States. Data shows that 77% of families in Utah, 72% of families in Nevada, 68% of families in Hawaii, and 64% of families in West Virginia and New York live in a child care desert.


Child care deserts refer to areas in the United States with little to no access to quality child care. Data suggests that more than half of all American families reside in child care deserts and, in some states, as much as two-thirds of families have limited access to child care.

Most areas are classified as a child care desert if more than 50 children under the age of five reside there, and there are more than three times as many children as there are licensed child care slots.


Yes. Some states have proposed budgets and legislations to provide child care benefits to working families. A federal comprehensive early childhood policy, the Child Care for Working Families Act, has been proposed in congress.

If passed, this policy would serve several million children across the United States, allow families with at least two children in child care to save more than $10,000 annually, and help to increase economic activity in at least 36 states by an estimated $1 billion each.

There’s no question that quality child care — that is both accessible and affordable — is an integral aspect of both the U.S. economy and the livelihood of families across the nation. However, after analyzing the numbers, it seems the current system is not only failing parents but also shorting employers and placing an overwhelming burden on America’s economy.

With more than half of all working families spending a whopping $10,000 a year on child care or roughly 10% of their household income, it’s no surprise that child care is leading to $6.9 billion in lost tax revenue, $12.7 billion in lost business revenue and $36.9 billion in lost individual earnings across the nation.

Although COVID-19 shutdowns may generally be past us, the pandemic continues to place added hardships on parents when it comes to affording and finding child care, an industry valued at $54 billion. Now, the availability and affordability of quality child care could largely depend on the success of various federal legislations.


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Thursday, April 8, 2021

LET´S EXPLAIN EQUALITY for Women and Girls

 Discrimination against women is a human rights violation. States must eliminate it and achieve (substantive) equality for women

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Wednesday, February 3, 2021

Fatima Outaleb, FAR Steering Committee member and Director of Union de l’Action Feminine’s Women’s Shelter in Morocco


Fatima Outaleb, FAR Steering Committee member and Director of Union de l’Action Feminine’s (Union for Women’s Action) Women’s Shelter in Morocco

Gender-based violence and discrimination in Morocco is widespread. It affects about 2/3, or 62.80%, of Moroccan women, according to the High Commission for Planning. Additionally, according to the Economic and Social Council, more than 80% of mens’ requests for permission to marry underage girls are accepted by the judiciary, and only 7% of women own real estate and  1% of Moroccan women own agricultural land. Today, the law perpetuates discrimination between the mother and father in having the right of guardianship over their children, which works against the principle of the child’s best interest. COVID-19 has exacerbated gender-based violence, poverty, and discrimination in Morocco as everywhere else.

For years, women’s organizations from southern Mediterranean countries have worked to combat these societal problems. In Morocco, L’Union de l’Action Feminine (UAF), or the Union of Women’s Action, launched the Caravane Zéro Tolerance, a caravan carrying luminous panels from Tangier to Casablanca to raise awareness of the effects of gender-based violence and discrimination that leads to women’s and girls’ tremendous suffering. The mobile campaign supplemented other types of campaigns that are adopted annually by UAF members. These campaigns include press statements in newspapers, magazines, radio, and television, and a press conference organized by UAF. In this event, UAF presents its annual report and the emergency centers that are part of the UAF network all discuss numbers and cases that are supported throughout the year. This year, UAF, in partnership with the Euro-Mediterranean Women’s Initiatives Network and with the support of the European Union, organized a two-day discussion on November 28th and 29th, 2020, on “Gender Justice and Facilitating Remedies for Women Victims of Violence,” which addressed female judges, lawyers, Judicial Police staff, and justice system professionals. 

Women’s human rights organizations will continue to implement activities to prevent and raise awareness of GBV and to protect women and girls, especially those from marginalized backgrounds. Women from the Global South have too frequently had to pay the prices of gender-blind policies, and it is time for states to abide by their commitments.

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Friday, January 29, 2021

Emily Bisharat

The contemporary feminist movement in Jordan owes a lot to Emily Bisharat, a pioneering philanthropist, political activist and the Kingdom's first female lawyer, according to women activists.

At a time when women activism was unfamiliar, Bisharat "carved in stone" her plight to achieve gender equity and women's suffrage rights, Suhair Tal, a writer and researcher who documented Bisharat's life, recently said.
Speaking at a session on Bisharat's life, held by the Sisterhood Is Global Institute (SIGI), Tal said Bisharat belonged to a family of three girls. Her father was the eldest of the extended family, originating from Salt in Balqa Governorate, 35km northwest of Amman.
She wanted to become a lawyer, but her father refused. Yet, she studied at Ramallah Friends School, and later went to the Syrian-Lebanese College to receive her education in the English language, which entitled her to work as a teacher in the 1930s.
"Girls at the time were not allowed to become anything more than teachers," Tal said, noting that girls then were also not allowed to inherit money or property, which meant that her father's fortune went to his male nephews, not his daughters.
After her father's death, Bisharat saved up money and obtained a law degree from London Metropolitan University. She practised law at home, and became a member of the Jordan Bar Association's (JBA) council twice.
Bisharat's thought and political awareness expanded with her life experiences, said Tal, who highlighted that the pioneering woman carried a democratic nationalistic communist ideology. 
"She was smart and knew that the society will not accept political activism from a woman, therefore she transformed her ideas into philanthropic programmes as a window for social acceptance and an opportunity to network with other women," Tal noted.
In 1945 Bisharat established the Arab Women's Union, which called for "equal rights and responsibilities, and pan-Arab unity". But the union was closed down in 1957.
The activist also delivered several lectures in the United States on the rights of the Palestinian people upon the 1948 Nakbah.
"The Palestinian issue was at the heart of her political activism," said Tal, noting that Bisharat believed in the equal mental capabilities of men and women and women's need to work for self-realisation and income generation.
She often wrote about these issues in Alraed magazine, and she sometimes published articles under the pseudonym Bin Al Urdon "Daughter of Jordan".
Bisharat was also a philanthropist, as she established an orphanage for Palestinian children in 1948, and opened the first nursing school in 1953.
Nonetheless, she experienced despair due to the rejection she faced from some people, as well as the repeated closure of unions. She expressed that by staying at her home most of the time, not participating in public life. 
Bisharat, who passed away in 2004, donated her fortune, valued at almost JD500,000, to charities and the church, said Tal.
SIGI Executive Director Asma Khader said Bisharat donated her library, sewing machine, printing machine and spectacles to SIGI.
She added that Bisharat was keen on attending the JBA's general assembly's meeting and participating in the association's elections until a late period of her life.
Haifa Bashir, another women rights activist, said Bisharat's history is so refined and that other Jordanian women learn a lot from her.

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Sunday, January 17, 2021


In late 2016 a feminist movement against problems of commercial sexual exploitation, especially issues of coerced pornography filming, arose in Japan. This article describes the history of this movement as it mobilized to combat human rights violations perpetrated by the country’s pornographers. The movement’s success came not spontaneously or haphazardly; in fact, it was orchestrated earlier over a full decade-and-a-half by activists who persevered in researching and highlighting pornography’s harms in a civil environment of hostility, isolation and social derision, even among progressive groups and individuals. The Anti-Pornography and Prostitution Research Group (APP) was particularly prominent in this history. Its members were inspired and instructed early on by the work of Catharine MacKinnon and Andrea Dworkin in bringing to public attention victim accounts of pornography’s harms in the US from the 1980s, and they attempted to follow this example. The example of feminist anti-pornography activism described here is a case of unlikely political success achieved in an unexpected place, given that Japan ranks 110th-place in global gender equality league tables out of 150 countries, and it is offered as a real-world example of MacKinnon’s “butterfly” model of radical social change.

Direct Link to Full 26-Page Article in DIGNITY Publication:
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