Monday, October 25, 2021

USA - CHILD CARE & WOMEN IN THE WORKPLACE STATISTICS - 2021




By Chris Kolmar - Sep. 15, 2021

 

Research Summary. Across the United States, child care accessibility places a large burden on the economy and the labor force. Now, closures and mandates brought on by the global pandemic are causing increased hardship when it comes to finding quality child care.

 

  • Annual economic losses because of child care translate to $6.9 billion in lost tax revenue, $12.7 billion in lost business revenue, and $36.9 billion in lost individual earnings.
  • In 2020, 57% of working families spent more than $10,000 on child care.
  • 51% of Americans live in communities classified as child care deserts.
  • On average, Americans with children spend at least 10% of their household income on child care.
  • The child care industry in the United States is valued at $54 billion.

GENERAL CHILD CARE STATISTICS

  • 27% of families who have difficulty accessing child care can not find an open child care slot.

Roughly half of Americans have trouble finding child care, and 27% of them say it’s because there are not enough open child care slots. As a result, two-thirds of parents in the U.S. have very few — often only one — child care options.

  • On average, it costs $340 per week to send a child to a child care or daycare center.

As reported by the Center for American Progress, in the United States, it costs $300 per week to send a child to a family care center, $340 per week to send a child to a child care or daycare center, and $612 per week for a nanny.

  • Roughly 30% of U.S. children under the age of five can not access a child care slot.

According to a 2020 study that analyzes 25 states across the nation, 8.4 million children under the age of five needed child care. However, only about 5.9 million child care slots were available. Thus, roughly 2.7 million children, or 31.7%, could not access quality child care due to a limited number of child care slots.

CHILD CARE AND WOMEN IN THE WORKPLACE STATISTICS

  • Child care is more likely to impact a mother’s career than it is to impact a father’s career.

According to a survey conducted by the Center for American Progress, mothers with young children are 40% more likely than fathers to report that child care issues have negatively impacted their careers.

  • About 20% of stay-at-home mothers would enter the workforce if they had child care assistance.

According to numbers published by American Progress, 20% of mothers who do not currently work would look for a job if they had better access to quality child care.

An additional 42% of working mothers would look for a higher-paying job, and 29% of working mothers would seek additional schooling or training to help them advance in their careers.

  • The cost of child care has led to a 13% decline in the employment of mothers.

Over the past two decades, women’s participation in the labor force has been declining, and rising child care costs are partly to blame. The United States’ lack of federal child care and paid family leave policies is tied to at least one-third of the decline in female employment.

  • In the United States, 69% of young mothers work.

According to the Center for American Progress, nearly 70% of young mothers participate in the labor force. The center also found that fewer mothers in the workforce are directly associated with child care deserts.

  • About 42% of mothers are sole or primary breadwinners for their household.

Overall, 70% of American mothers participate in the labor force, and roughly 42% of them are the sole or primary breadwinners in their homes. This rate is even higher among Black mothers, with 71% of them serving as the sole or primary breadwinners for their household.

CHILD CARE INDUSTRY STATISTICS

  • Roughly 30% of infants and toddlers go to home-based child care facilities.

In the United States, 29.5% of infants and toddlers attend home-based child care facilities. Meanwhile, 37.7% of infants and toddlers are exclusively cared for by a parent or guardian.

  • 58% of working parents rely on child care centers.

According to national estimates from the National Household Education Survey, 58% of working parents with children five years old and younger — or about 6.38 million parents across the nation — use center-based child care options.

The survey also found that of the 11 million working parents in the U.S., 31% of them do not rely on any outside child care, 25% of them rely on non-relatives for child care, and 47% rely on relatives for child care.

  • U.S. businesses lose, on average, $12.7 billion each year due to child care challenges.

Data shows that employees with children three years old and younger cost their employers roughly $1,150 per year because of inadequate child care. With 11 million working parents across the U.S., this equates to a total business loss of $12.7 billion.

CHILD CARE COSTS

  • The large majority of working parents have reduced their work hours, at some point, for their kids.

As a result of child care problems, 63% of working parents have left work earlier than normal, 56% of working parents have been late for work, 55% of working parents have missed a full day of work, and 54% of working parents have reported being distracted at work, according to data published by Ready Nation.

In addition, of the parents surveyed, one in five of them said they have been reprimanded at least once by a supervisor, and one in seven of them said they have had their pay or hours reduced as a result of child care affecting their productivity levels at work.

  • More than half of U.S. families spent more than $10,000 on child care in 2020.

According to a survey by Care.com, 57% of families across the United States spent more than $10,000 on child care last year. In 2021, 59% of families are budgeting to spend more than $10,000 in yearly child care costs.

These numbers make child care more expensive than college, with the average in-state tuition ringing up at $9,580 annually.

  • The current child care system places a $98 billion burden on the U.S. economy.

According to data reported by Ready Nation, working parents lose an estimated $8,940 each year in lost earnings, reduced participation in the workforce, and lower returns on professional experience.

Across the nation, there are approximately 11 million working parents with children under the age of three. As such, the current child care system results in a total average annual economic cost of $98 billion.

CHILD CARE AND THE PANDEMIC STATISTICS

  • The United States is on track to permanently lose up to 4.5 million child care slots due to the pandemic.

According to Teach for America, more than 4 million child care slots could be lost in the coming months due to COVID-19. Moreover, the large majority of these lost slots will affect low-income families and people of color.

  • Prior to the pandemic, at least two-thirds of U.S. families relied on some form of child care.

Before the pandemic, the majority of parents with children under the age of six worked and thus relied on child care to some extent. About 22% of all parents with young children say that they can not work, either in person or remotely, without child care.

  • Child care is more expensive now compared to before the pandemic.

According to a report published by Care.com, 72% of families say that child care is more expensive than it was before the global COVID-19 pandemic. Meanwhile, only 6% of families report that it is less expensive.

Increased costs are widely due to the elevated safety precautions that have been put in place at child care centers across the nation.

  • Quality child care is much harder to find now compared to before the pandemic.

Roughly 46% of families in the United States said that they have a harder time finding child care now compared to pre-pandemic. As such, many families are turning to nannies instead of daycare centers for their child care needs.

Today, the cost of hiring a nanny is only $14 more per week than the cost of having two kids in a child care center. In 2019, it cost $239 more weekly to hire a nanny.

  • The majority of U.S. child care centers have not yet fully reopened.

According to Care.com, of the 51% of American families who used child care or daycare center before the pandemic, 61% say that the center is not yet fully open and operating. An additional 14% of survey families who used child care centers before the pandemic said that their child care provider is open, but not fully.

  • 62% of families are more concerned about the cost of child care now compared to before the pandemic.

Compared to pre-pandemic, 62% of families are more concerned, while 10% of families are less concerned about the cost of child care. Of the 62% who are more concerned, 43% said it was because of the increased cost of child care due to safety protocols, and 32% said it was because they had to shift to a different child care arrangement.

CHILD CARE AVAILABILITY BY DEMOGRAPHICS

In the United States, roughly 44% of Black families, 50% of White families, and 57% of Hispanic families live in a child care desert and thus have a harder time finding child care.

Among higher-income neighborhoods, only 43% of families struggle to find child care. This is compared to 54% of families who live in lower-income neighborhoods and have a hard time accessing child care.

  • More than 70% of mothers in the United States work.

According to labor statistics, in 2020, 71.2% of mothers with children under the age of 18 participated in the labor force. This number was down from 72.3% in 2019. For comparison, in 2020, 92.3% of fathers with children under the age of 18 participated in the labor force.

  • Black mothers have the highest rates of workforce participation out of all mothers in the United States.

According to numbers released by American Progress, 80% of Black women with children aged six through 17 work — the highest rate of all other racial and ethnic groups analyzed. In addition, the labor force participation rate for Black women has increased by 23% since 1989.

  • Child care is harder to access in the Western United States and rural areas.

In small towns and rural areas across the nation, roughly 26% of families report that finding a child care provider is very difficult. For comparison, only 10% of families who live in the suburbs and 11% of families who live in major cities report having a very difficult time finding a quality child care provider.

In addition, an estimated 20% of families in the Western United States lost their child care provider, either because they are permanently closed or unavailable, due to the pandemic.

  • Quality child care is especially hard to come by in Utah, Nevada, Hawaii, West Virginia, and New York.

Utah, Nevada, Hawaii, West Virginia, and New York have the highest rates of child care deserts by the state in the United States. Data shows that 77% of families in Utah, 72% of families in Nevada, 68% of families in Hawaii, and 64% of families in West Virginia and New York live in a child care desert.

WHAT ARE CHILD CARE DESERTS?

Child care deserts refer to areas in the United States with little to no access to quality child care. Data suggests that more than half of all American families reside in child care deserts and, in some states, as much as two-thirds of families have limited access to child care.

Most areas are classified as a child care desert if more than 50 children under the age of five reside there, and there are more than three times as many children as there are licensed child care slots.

ARE THERE ANY PROPOSED POLICY SOLUTIONS TO MAKE CHILD CARE MORE ACCESSIBLE AND AFFORDABLE?

Yes. Some states have proposed budgets and legislations to provide child care benefits to working families. A federal comprehensive early childhood policy, the Child Care for Working Families Act, has been proposed in congress.

If passed, this policy would serve several million children across the United States, allow families with at least two children in child care to save more than $10,000 annually, and help to increase economic activity in at least 36 states by an estimated $1 billion each.

There’s no question that quality child care — that is both accessible and affordable — is an integral aspect of both the U.S. economy and the livelihood of families across the nation. However, after analyzing the numbers, it seems the current system is not only failing parents but also shorting employers and placing an overwhelming burden on America’s economy.

With more than half of all working families spending a whopping $10,000 a year on child care or roughly 10% of their household income, it’s no surprise that child care is leading to $6.9 billion in lost tax revenue, $12.7 billion in lost business revenue and $36.9 billion in lost individual earnings across the nation.

Although COVID-19 shutdowns may generally be past us, the pandemic continues to place added hardships on parents when it comes to affording and finding child care, an industry valued at $54 billion. Now, the availability and affordability of quality child care could largely depend on the success of various federal legislations.


 https://www.zippia.com/advice/us-child-care-availability-statistics/

 

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Thursday, April 8, 2021

LET´S EXPLAIN EQUALITY for Women and Girls




 Discrimination against women is a human rights violation. States must eliminate it and achieve (substantive) equality for women


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Wednesday, February 3, 2021

Fatima Outaleb, FAR Steering Committee member and Director of Union de l’Action Feminine’s Women’s Shelter in Morocco

 

Fatima Outaleb, FAR Steering Committee member and Director of Union de l’Action Feminine’s (Union for Women’s Action) Women’s Shelter in Morocco


Gender-based violence and discrimination in Morocco is widespread. It affects about 2/3, or 62.80%, of Moroccan women, according to the High Commission for Planning. Additionally, according to the Economic and Social Council, more than 80% of mens’ requests for permission to marry underage girls are accepted by the judiciary, and only 7% of women own real estate and  1% of Moroccan women own agricultural land. Today, the law perpetuates discrimination between the mother and father in having the right of guardianship over their children, which works against the principle of the child’s best interest. COVID-19 has exacerbated gender-based violence, poverty, and discrimination in Morocco as everywhere else.

For years, women’s organizations from southern Mediterranean countries have worked to combat these societal problems. In Morocco, L’Union de l’Action Feminine (UAF), or the Union of Women’s Action, launched the Caravane Zéro Tolerance, a caravan carrying luminous panels from Tangier to Casablanca to raise awareness of the effects of gender-based violence and discrimination that leads to women’s and girls’ tremendous suffering. The mobile campaign supplemented other types of campaigns that are adopted annually by UAF members. These campaigns include press statements in newspapers, magazines, radio, and television, and a press conference organized by UAF. In this event, UAF presents its annual report and the emergency centers that are part of the UAF network all discuss numbers and cases that are supported throughout the year. This year, UAF, in partnership with the Euro-Mediterranean Women’s Initiatives Network and with the support of the European Union, organized a two-day discussion on November 28th and 29th, 2020, on “Gender Justice and Facilitating Remedies for Women Victims of Violence,” which addressed female judges, lawyers, Judicial Police staff, and justice system professionals. 

Women’s human rights organizations will continue to implement activities to prevent and raise awareness of GBV and to protect women and girls, especially those from marginalized backgrounds. Women from the Global South have too frequently had to pay the prices of gender-blind policies, and it is time for states to abide by their commitments.


http://feministallianceforrights.org/blog/2020/12/11/never-tolerate-violence/?fbclid=IwAR12k6K3s0rFa1n0-vVpAZs13heFuCeOtoB0s-UOKkOEDPnxKgeTtHS766o

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Friday, January 29, 2021

Emily Bisharat

The contemporary feminist movement in Jordan owes a lot to Emily Bisharat, a pioneering philanthropist, political activist and the Kingdom's first female lawyer, according to women activists.

At a time when women activism was unfamiliar, Bisharat "carved in stone" her plight to achieve gender equity and women's suffrage rights, Suhair Tal, a writer and researcher who documented Bisharat's life, recently said.
Speaking at a session on Bisharat's life, held by the Sisterhood Is Global Institute (SIGI), Tal said Bisharat belonged to a family of three girls. Her father was the eldest of the extended family, originating from Salt in Balqa Governorate, 35km northwest of Amman.
She wanted to become a lawyer, but her father refused. Yet, she studied at Ramallah Friends School, and later went to the Syrian-Lebanese College to receive her education in the English language, which entitled her to work as a teacher in the 1930s.
"Girls at the time were not allowed to become anything more than teachers," Tal said, noting that girls then were also not allowed to inherit money or property, which meant that her father's fortune went to his male nephews, not his daughters.
After her father's death, Bisharat saved up money and obtained a law degree from London Metropolitan University. She practised law at home, and became a member of the Jordan Bar Association's (JBA) council twice.
Bisharat's thought and political awareness expanded with her life experiences, said Tal, who highlighted that the pioneering woman carried a democratic nationalistic communist ideology. 
"She was smart and knew that the society will not accept political activism from a woman, therefore she transformed her ideas into philanthropic programmes as a window for social acceptance and an opportunity to network with other women," Tal noted.
In 1945 Bisharat established the Arab Women's Union, which called for "equal rights and responsibilities, and pan-Arab unity". But the union was closed down in 1957.
The activist also delivered several lectures in the United States on the rights of the Palestinian people upon the 1948 Nakbah.
"The Palestinian issue was at the heart of her political activism," said Tal, noting that Bisharat believed in the equal mental capabilities of men and women and women's need to work for self-realisation and income generation.
She often wrote about these issues in Alraed magazine, and she sometimes published articles under the pseudonym Bin Al Urdon "Daughter of Jordan".
Bisharat was also a philanthropist, as she established an orphanage for Palestinian children in 1948, and opened the first nursing school in 1953.
Nonetheless, she experienced despair due to the rejection she faced from some people, as well as the repeated closure of unions. She expressed that by staying at her home most of the time, not participating in public life. 
Bisharat, who passed away in 2004, donated her fortune, valued at almost JD500,000, to charities and the church, said Tal.
SIGI Executive Director Asma Khader said Bisharat donated her library, sewing machine, printing machine and spectacles to SIGI.
She added that Bisharat was keen on attending the JBA's general assembly's meeting and participating in the association's elections until a late period of her life.
Haifa Bashir, another women rights activist, said Bisharat's history is so refined and that other Jordanian women learn a lot from her.

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Sunday, January 17, 2021

FEMINIST ACTION AGAINST PORNOGRAPHY IN JAPAN: UNEXPECTED SUCCESS IN AN UNLIKELY PLACE



In late 2016 a feminist movement against problems of commercial sexual exploitation, especially issues of coerced pornography filming, arose in Japan. This article describes the history of this movement as it mobilized to combat human rights violations perpetrated by the country’s pornographers. The movement’s success came not spontaneously or haphazardly; in fact, it was orchestrated earlier over a full decade-and-a-half by activists who persevered in researching and highlighting pornography’s harms in a civil environment of hostility, isolation and social derision, even among progressive groups and individuals. The Anti-Pornography and Prostitution Research Group (APP) was particularly prominent in this history. Its members were inspired and instructed early on by the work of Catharine MacKinnon and Andrea Dworkin in bringing to public attention victim accounts of pornography’s harms in the US from the 1980s, and they attempted to follow this example. The example of feminist anti-pornography activism described here is a case of unlikely political success achieved in an unexpected place, given that Japan ranks 110th-place in global gender equality league tables out of 150 countries, and it is offered as a real-world example of MacKinnon’s “butterfly” model of radical social change.


Direct Link to Full 26-Page Article in DIGNITY Publication:
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Sunday, January 10, 2021

Turkey: Gender-based violence







There has unfortunately been no setback and no development that could be considered positive in male violence against women in 2020. 260 women were killed within the first 11 months of 2020. At least 92 women were raped, while 136 women were harassed and 731 women were subjected to violence.

The conditions brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic that left numerous individuals unemployed or enclosed at home have brought along much more severe conditions for women. Lockdowns in almost all countries around the world led to an escalation in sexual, economic and physical violence against women. Observation reports published in Turkey also point to a similar state of affairs for women. According to April and May 2020 reports4 published by the We Will End Femicide Platform, the rate of women who called the support lines increased by 55% and 78% in April and May respectively.

Many events planned for the 8 March International Women’s Day faced bans and interventions this year too. The 8 March Feminist Night March that has been held since 2003 but intervened into in 2019 was also banned by the İstanbul Governor’s Office in 2020.The police used tear gas and rubber bullets against women who assembled in Sıraselviler Street in İstanbul. At least 32 women were taken into police custody.

The police intervened into the protest held on 15 May 2020 in İstanbul, Kadıköy on the occasion of the International Day Against Homophobia, Biphobia and Transphobia and took two persons into custody using physical violence.

The police also intervened into a sit-in staged in Batman’s Atatürk Park to protest the sexual assault of a young girl by a specialist sergeant in Batman and took 10 persons into custody including children.

The police intervened into a march following a press conference, to protest the murder of Pınar Gültekin by a man called Cemal Metin Avcı, held by Women Are Strong Together Platform in İzmir, Alsancak on 21 July 2020 while taking 12 persons into custody using physical force.

Moreover, in February 2020 at a meeting with AKP deputies and central executive board members, President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan stated that the İstanbul Convention would be reviewed. In the disputes that followed, statements like “(the convention) disrupted the Turkish family structure” and “provided legal grounds for homosexuality” made the İstanbul Convention a target. The Council of

Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women and Domestic Violence, a.k.a. the İstanbul Convention, which sets forth the basic standards for the prevention of and combat gender-based and domestic violence against women along with states’ responsibilities to this end, had been ratified by the GNAT on 24 November 2011. Numerous women staged mass protests stating that the standards against violence, which have already been implemented insufficiently, would be terminated in their entirety if Turkey withdraws its signature from this convention.

The police did not allow a forum on the İstanbul Convention scheduled to be held on 26 July 2020 in İstanbul, Beşiktaş Abbasağa Park by the Women Are Strong Together Collective on the grounds of a ban decision delivered by the governor’s office. The police took 8 persons into custody by using physical violence following the end of the forum.

The police intervened into a march organized by İzmir Women’s Platform demanding the implementation of the İstanbul Convention on 5 August 2020 in İzmir and took 16 persons into custody
using physical violence and rear-handcuffing the protestors. It was reported that following the sit-in staged for the release of those in custody, 5 more people were taken into custody.

The police intervened into a press conference held on 12 August 2020 by Ankara Women’s Platform
to protest Turkey’s withdrawal from the İstanbul Convention and took 33 persons into custody using physical violence.

The police did not allow a press conference and march scheduled by Women’s Committees on the occasion of 25 November International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women in İstanbul,
Taksim. The police blockaded women who staged a sit-in before the police barricades for about 5 hours, then took 10 women into custody rear-handcuffing them and using physical violence. It was reported that a woman was wounded during the intervention.

https://euromedrights.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/iHD-HRFT_Human-Rights-Day-2020_.pdf

4 http://kadincinayetlerinidurduracagiz.net/aciklamalar/2912/nisan-2020-basvuru-karsilama-raporu

http://kadincinayetlerinidurduracagiz.net/aciklamalar/2912/nisan-2020-basvuru-karsilama-raporu
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Saturday, December 5, 2020

Recommendations for the U.S. Government 3/3



1. Ensure all global response and recovery efforts comply with the gender analysis and integration requirement of the Women’s Entrepreneurship and Economic Empowerment Actxv (Section 3(c)) by making funds immediately available and directed towards efforts including, but not limited to: 

a. Additional personnel and technical assistance to conduct and integrate gender analyses as defined in Sec 3(c) of the WEEE Act into response and recovery efforts; and 

b. Ensure programs address the different impacts of the crisis on all genders, including on their employment, income, access to social safety nets and financial services, gender-based violence, property rights and security of land tenure, the capability to fully exercise their rights and influence decision-making, access to agricultural extension services and other support, access to education, and other factors affecting women’s and girls’ economic empowerment.

 2. Prioritize the safe and meaningful involvement of women, girls, and other marginalized populations in decision-making processes related to COVID-19 responses, relief delivery, and recovery at all levels. This means proactively ensuring women and girls are included on leadership bodies, and women and girls are actively engaged in developing communityand context-specific responses, and consulted through the various stages of program design, implementation, and evaluation. 

3. Fund and implement programming to address the specific economic impacts on women globally, especially lower income, migrant, and other marginalized women. This support should include the informal and formal sectors, and should expand funding to existing programs for the following: 

a. Maintaining and expanding existing cash transfer and broader subsidy programs, while also removing conditionality linked to girls attending school or families delaying daughters’ marriage, to ensure alreadyvulnerable women, girls, and their households are not driven deeper into poverty as a result of COVID-19; 

b. Supporting women as entrepreneurs and workers through stop-gap financing measures to firms experiencing losses due to COVID-19. Measures should include resources for women entrepreneurs to pivot their businesses to e-commerce, promote remote working, and expand into high-demand markets due to COVID-19, as well as funding for financing and capital to support economic recovery. These efforts must include outreach to women and other marginalized populations to ensure they have meaningful access to financing, capital, and other financial services at the same rate as men; 

c. Prioritizing consumer protection safeguards, especially at microfinance level, to ensure women are not driven into a cycle of debt in response to COVID-19. Where possible, prioritize cash- and savings-led approaches to support very poor populations; 

d. Ensuring supply chains take measures to promote women’s job security in light of the instability resulting from COVID-19 and enact protections to prevent the exploitation of women, girls, and marginalized populations that may be exacerbated under COVID-crisis circumstances. This includes ensuring fair wages, decent work conditions, and other protections are in place for workers both in the workplace as well as those working from home; 

e. Investing in training, skills development, and job placement programs for women to access jobs in industries responsive to COVID-19 (e.g., health care product manufacturing, information and communications technology, and food and accommodations); 

f. Addressing and minimizing disruptions to girls’ education and taking special measures to ensure that girls return to school so that their future economic opportunities are not diminished; g. Investing in technological solutions to promote women’s employment and entrepreneurship during the COVID19 crisis, including funding and skills building to narrow the gender digital divide and increase women’s access to digital tools and platforms; and 4 h. Ensuring any agricultural financial and technical assistance targets women farmers and agricultural workers, including small-scale farms, and promote increased access to labor-saving, women-friendly technology. Provide food assistance to the poorest and most vulnerable populations during this crisis. 

4. Integrate a gender-based violence prevention and mitigation plan as well as ‘Do No Harm’ principles into all COVID-19 emergency response funding and action plans. Funding should be directed to support ongoing gender-based violence programming to increase prevention and to support survivors in the face of likely increases in gender-based violence, such as domestic or intimate partner violence during social distancing and lockdowns or increased rates of child marriage due to economic hardship or other factors. 

5. Allocate funding to ensure that social services such as health, education, and other care-related functions can continue at levels prior to the disease outbreak, anticipating that countries whose economies have been heavily impacted by COVID-19 will not be able to fund social services at the same levels. Debt relief measures and other financing cannot come at the expense of social service expenditure. 

6. Continue and increase support for longer-term initiatives that advance gender-equitable social norms and infrastructure, such as childcare services and programs to support involvement of men and boys in household duties, particularly given their additional time at home under stay-at-home measures, to alleviate women and girls’ disproportionate unpaid care burdens. These measures should also support prevention of gender-based discrimination and violence and promote women’s voice and leadership at all levels. 

7. Require rigorous monitoring, evaluation, and learning, including the use of standard indicators to assess the extent to which U.S. Government strategies, projects, activities, and programs responding to COVID-19 either widen or narrow gender gaps in the economy and more broadly. Prioritize the collection of gender- and age-disaggregated data from foreign assistance programs addressing COVID-19 impacts, and additional accountability mechanisms to ensure implementation.


cweee_covid_and_wee_brief_final.pdf (icrw.org)

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