Sunday, October 21, 2018

Montenegro: GREVIO’s (Baseline) Evaluation Report. Concluding remarks


261. GREVIO welcomes the many steps taken by the Montenegrin authorities, since its independence in 2006, to align its laws and policies with international standards in the area of promoting gender equality and combating violence against women. More specifically, a range of targeted efforts supported by and in co-operation with the international community present in Montenegro, have led to significant achievements in implementing many of the requirements of the Istanbul Convention. 

262. GREVIO recognises the political willingness displayed by the authorities in Montenegro to intensify the level of compliance with the Istanbul Convention and notes the high level of technical and financial support to this effect provided by intergovernmental organisations and international donors. It welcomes the extensive range of research projects, technical assistance and capacitybuilding exercises in areas of relevance to the Convention, past and present, and carried out and/or funded by the international community. While GREVIO is mindful of the varying economic circumstances of state parties to the Convention and that progress can only be achieved over time, it recalls that the obligation to implement conventional requirements lies with the state party. Essential policies, measures and services must therefore be allocated appropriate state funding. Although some steps are being taken by the Montenegrin authorities to this extent (for example the 50% funding for the new national helpline on domestic violence), many important measures, including the Strategy on Protection from Domestic Violence, do not seem to receive any funding from the government. Almost all NGOs providing essential services for victims of domestic violence are still funded by international donors. The limited financial support available from public funds is further being reduced following the recent changes to the Law on Non-Governmental Organisations. New and more sustainable funding opportunities for the existing women’s specialist support services are not envisaged, despite the evident need to close gaps in terms of their geographical distribution and the forms of violence currently addressed. 

263. While a number of women’s support services exist for victims of domestic violence, these are not readily available in rural areas, and the existing domestic violence shelters are usually filled to capacity. Moreover, GREVIO notes with concern that there are no services for victims of rape and sexual violence nor are there any counselling services and shelters for women and girls fleeing forced marriage. 

264. Regarding the legislative framework in the area of violence against women, GREVIO welcomes the adoption of the Law on Domestic Violence Prevention (LDVP) but notes that it predates the entry into force of the Istanbul Convention in Montenegro and that a number of issues prevail regarding its effective implementation. While it introduces important concepts called for by the Istanbul Convention, such as that of multi-agency co-operation and emergency barring and protection orders, it sets out extremely low sanctions for domestic violence. Introduced with a view to ensuring higher rates of reporting of domestic violence, most domestic violence cases are now prosecuted as misdemeanour offences under the LDVP instead of criminal offences. Criminal convictions are thus rare, and cases prosecuted under the LDVP usually lead to fines or suspended sentences. Incoherence in applying the two parallel legislative frameworks (the LDVP and the Criminal Code) is widespread. At the same time, efforts made by law enforcement agencies and prosecution services to investigate into, record and fully assess the history of abuse that victims experience at the hands of their abusers are low, leaving many incidents of domestic violence unaccounted for. Victims frequently feel disillusioned with the outcome of cases, and there is a widespread tendency among all relevant professionals to encourage victims to reconcile instead of pursuing criminal justice.

265. Such tendencies seem to be the result of generally low levels of awareness of the gendered dimension of domestic violence (as well as those of the other forms of violence covered by the Convention). It is not viewed as a manifestation of unequal power relations between men and women but is frequently linked to alcohol addiction, personality disorders or poverty of the perpetrator. Efforts must be stepped up to address such assumptions and attitudes, in particular where they exist among front-line professionals. GREVIO notes the wide range of training and capacity-building initiatives around domestic violence organised by a variety of actors in the past, and thus calls for a more practical approach involving on-the-job training, training based on protocols and guidelines and incentive schemes to ensure real and lasting change. 

266. Lastly, GREVIO points to the need to ensure higher levels of awareness, sensitisation and capacity-building not only in relation to domestic violence, but in relation to all forms of genderbased violence covered by the Convention, particularly in relation to sexual violence, including rape. This seems to be an area surrounded by taboos as reporting rates for sexual violence are extremely low. 

267. With a view to facilitating the implementation of its suggestions and proposals, GREVIO requests the Montenegrin authorities to translate this report into their official national language(s) and to ensure that it is widely disseminated, not only to the relevant state institutions at all levels (national, regional and local), in particular to the government, the ministries and the judiciary, but also to NGOs and other civil society organisations which work in the field of violence against women. 

https://rm.coe.int/grevio-report-montenegro/16808e5614
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Wednesday, October 17, 2018

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)



The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), adopted in 1979 by the UN General Assembly, is often described as an international bill of rights for women.  Consisting of a preamble and 30 articles, it defines what constitutes discrimination against women and sets up an agenda for national action to end such discrimination.

The Convention defines discrimination against women as "...any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field."
By accepting the Convention, States commit themselves to undertake a series of measures to end discrimination against women in all forms, including:


  • to incorporate the principle of equality of men and women in their legal system, abolish all discriminatory laws and adopt appropriate ones prohibiting discrimination against women;
  • to establish tribunals and other public institutions to ensure the effective protection of women against discrimination; and
  • to ensure elimination of all acts of discrimination against women by persons, organizations or enterprises.

 The Convention provides the basis for realizing equality between women and men through ensuring women's equal access to, and equal opportunities in, political and public life -- including the right to vote and to stand for election -- as well as education, health and employment.  States parties agree to take all appropriate measures, including legislation and temporary special measures, so that women can enjoy all their human rights and fundamental freedoms.

The Convention is the only human rights treaty which affirms the reproductive rights of women and targets culture and tradition as influential forces shaping gender roles and family relations.  It affirms women's rights to acquire, change or retain their nationality and the nationality of their children.  States parties also agree to take appropriate measures against all forms of traffic in women and exploitation of women. 

Countries that have ratified or acceded to the Convention are legally bound to put its provisions into practice.  They are also committed to submit national reports, at least every four years, on measures they have taken to comply with their treaty obligations.

http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/cedaw.htm
http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/text/econvention.htm
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Monday, October 15, 2018

Feminicide across Europe: United Kingdom



 The UK Home Office collects data on all homicides on the England and Wales Homicide Index6, which is a computer-based system where all homicides are initially recorded by the police. It has existed since 1976. This initial information is updated with suspect information and court outcomes, once available. Information relating to age, gender, motivation and relationship is recorded for all victims and perpetrators. It also contains information regarding female homicide victims, their ages and their relationships to the perpetrators. In Scotland, similar information is collected by the Scottish Government.
In the UK, the Femicide Census was developed in partnership by Karen Ingala Smith, CEO of Nia, and Women’s Aid, and with support from Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer and Deloitte LLP. The Femicide Census aims to provide a clear picture of femicide in the UK, in order to understand and address this phenomenon and, most importantly, to give a voice to the victims who have lost their lives to men’s violence. Originally developed with data from Ingala Smith’s blog Counting Dead Women, it is now an influential observatory on femicide, detailing almost 1000 women who have been killed by men in England and Wales, since 2009.
The Femicide Census provides invaluable quantitative information regarding femicide in the UK, which equips us with a better understanding of the phenomenon and places us in an improved position to tackle a leading cause of premature death among women. Where possible, the Census                                                         

includes information, such as the name of the woman and her killer, their ages, occupations and health statuses, the elements of the killing itself – including the date, police area, weapon and recorded motive – as well as other available details for each case, relating to children, ethnicity and country of birth. The collection of this data demonstrates that these killings are not isolated incidents, and enables us to analyze trends and patterns in more depth, significantly furthering our understanding of the phenomenon of femicide. Most importantly, the Femicide Census gives a voice to the victims who have died as a result of the most extreme manifestation of male violence against women. In her recent report to the General Assembly (A/71/398), the UN Special Rapporteur on violence against women (SRVAW) specifically cites the UK’s Femicide Census as an outstanding example of data collection practice. The SRVAW, the UN and its member states have repeatedly concluded that the comparability and availability of data are key requirements for defining and understanding femicide together with its manifestations, causes and consequences. 7
1 Definition
There is no agreed-upon UK government definition of femicide, and the term is not employed in official statistics. The Office for National Statistics publishes data on homicide in their Crime Survey for England and Wales8. These data are categorized according to the sex of the victim. The motive in these statistics is not given based on the gender of the victim, but instead on the victim's relationship to the perpetrator. While men are more likely to be killed, it is primarily by other men, while women are far more likely to be killed by their current or former partners, often as part of a premeditated action following coercive and controlling behavior by the perpetrator.   
 (by Hilary Fisher, Aisha K. Gill and Heidi Stöckl)


In order to fight feminicide/femicide, various Latin American and European countries have adopted increasingly specific laws and legal instruments that penalize feminicide. The ratification of the Belém do Pará Convention1 in Latin America and the entry into force of the Istanbul Convention2  in Europe, demonstrate an increasingly stronger international commitment against this kind of violence. The establishment of the Bi-regional Dialogue on Gender by the European Union (EU) and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), as well as the adoption of the Urgent Resolution on Feminicide in the European Union and Latin America3 by the Euro-Latin American Parliamentary Assembly (EuroLat) also express this commitment.    


However, legal norms, agreements, and international dialogues alone are not sufficient for the eradication of violence against women, nor its most extreme manifestation, feminicide.


Traditionally, States were only responsible for their own actions or those of their agents, but international public law has evolved and currently, the principle of due diligence makes the State responsible for the prevention, investigation, and prosecution of violence, regardless of who commits the crime. The duty of due diligence obliges States to enter the private sphere, where historically, they have not intervened, but where the majority of cases of violence against women occur. 



Therefore, it is the duty of the State to take all necessary measures to prevent human rights violations, such as feminicide, before they occur. This means, on the one hand, adopting pertinent laws and policies to prevent, investigate, prosecute, and punish those guilty of abuse, and on the other hand, successfully implement them. 

Patricia Jiménez, Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung – European Union, Brussels


                                                       
 6 Source: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/crimeandjustice/compendium/focusonviol entcrimeandsexualoffences/yearendingmarch2015/chapter2homicide
7 Source:  https://www.womensaid.org.uk/what-we-do/campaigning-and-influencing/femicide-census/
8 Source: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/crimeandjustice/compendium/focusonviol entcrimeandsexualoffences/yearendingmarch2015/chapter2homicide
9 Source: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/crimeandjustice/compendium/focusonviol entcrimeandsexualoffences/yearendingmarch2015/chapter2homicide#focus-on-domestic-homicides

http://www.europeanyoungfeminists.eu/2015/11/06/domestic-violence-and-coercive-control-in-the-united-kingdom/
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Saturday, October 13, 2018

Feminicide across Europe: Turkey


1 Sources
The number of sources collecting data on femicide in Turkey is limited. There has not yet been agreement as to the definition of femicide and the national authorities do not distinguish between femicide and female victims of homicide.

1- Turkish statistical Institute collected data about femicide and publishes annually. This data is the most accurate data for Turkey. However, the data covers only the number of women killed and it does not provide any other information.

2- A LGBT activist NGO has collected data about femicide, mainly from the media, since 2009 (http://bianet.org/kadin/bianet/133354-bianet-siddettaciz-tecavuz-cetelesi-tutuyor). In addition, there are two other NGO’s collecting data about femicide: www.anitsayac.com and http://kadincinayetleri.org
by Sadik Toprak

In order to fight feminicide/femicide, various Latin American and European countries have adopted increasingly specific laws and legal instruments that penalize feminicide. The ratification of the Belém do Pará Convention1 in Latin America and the entry into force of the Istanbul Convention2  in Europe, demonstrate an increasingly stronger international commitment against this kind of violence. The establishment of the Bi-regional Dialogue on Gender by the European Union (EU) and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), as well as the adoption of the Urgent Resolution on Feminicide in the European Union and Latin America3 by the Euro-Latin American Parliamentary Assembly (EuroLat) also express this commitment.    


However, legal norms, agreements, and international dialogues alone are not sufficient for the eradication of violence against women, nor its most extreme manifestation, feminicide.


Traditionally, States were only responsible for their own actions or those of their agents, but international public law has evolved and currently, the principle of due diligence makes the State responsible for the prevention, investigation, and prosecution of violence, regardless of who commits the crime. The duty of due diligence obliges States to enter the private sphere, where historically, they have not intervened, but where the majority of cases of violence against women occur. 



Therefore, it is the duty of the State to take all necessary measures to prevent human rights violations, such as feminicide, before they occur. This means, on the one hand, adopting pertinent laws and policies to prevent, investigate, prosecute, and punish those guilty of abuse, and on the other hand, successfully implement them. 

Patricia Jiménez, Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung – European Union, Brussels


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Thursday, October 11, 2018

Feminicide across Europe: Sweden

 

The term of femicide is not widely employed in Sweden. Swedish research on the matter is scarce, and the most common terms found are ‘deadly violence’, ‘deadly intimate partner violence against women’ and the gender-neutral ‘deadly intimate partner violence’ (Nybergh 2016), which is also often used by government agencies (e.g. Brå 2007, Socialstyrelsen 2016).

1 Sources The main body that collects data on violent crime (including the murder of women and men) is The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Brottsförebyggande rådet – Brå), an agency under the Ministry of Justice, established in 1974. Brå is a centre for research and development within the judicial system, working primarily to reduce crime and improve levels of safety in society by producing data and disseminating knowledge on crime and crime prevention work. Brå produces Sweden’s official crime statistics, evaluates reforms, conducts research to develop new knowledge and provides support to local crime prevention work. The results of Brå’s work form a basis for decision makers within the judicial system, Parliament and the Government. Brå often works in collaboration with other organisations and public sector agencies. It collects data on reported crime from the police, costume, prosecutor and the courts. Other sources include Statistics Sweden (SCB), but the SCB statistics themselves draw on Brå’s data.
Another, more qualitative, source is The National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen), a government agency under the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs. The agency is required by law to conduct special investigations in cases where the cause of death is related to ‘a crime conducted by a close, or formerly close person’ (Socialstyrelsen 2016, p. 10). The aim of the investigations is to provide information that could be used in developing prevention measures in matters of intimate partner or family violence, as well as to enable long-term knowledge production. The National Board of Health and Welfare has been critical of their own investigations and argued that it is impossible to draw any general conclusions, or make any systematic analyses, due the sample being too small, and too narrowly defined, and the fact that the Board is not permitted to obtain information about perpetrators.
2 Definition
Crime statistics and law refer to ‘deadly violence’, which includes murder, manslaughter, childslaughter and assault with deadly outcome (these are literal translations from Brå), collectively termed ‘deadly violence’ (Brå 2016a). Common terms used by government agencies are ‘deadly intimate partner violence against women’ and ‘deadly intimate partner violence’ (e.g. Brå 2007, Socialstyrelsen 2016), which primarily refers the murder of a woman by an intimate partner. An intimate partner is commonly defined as: current or former husband, partner, boyfriend, girlfriend or lover, regardless of currently or previously having lived together.
 (by Lucas Gottzén and Sofia Strid)


In order to fight feminicide/femicide, various Latin American and European countries have adopted increasingly specific laws and legal instruments that penalize feminicide. The ratification of the Belém do Pará Convention1 in Latin America and the entry into force of the Istanbul Convention2  in Europe, demonstrate an increasingly stronger international commitment against this kind of violence. The establishment of the Bi-regional Dialogue on Gender by the European Union (EU) and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), as well as the adoption of the Urgent Resolution on Feminicide in the European Union and Latin America3 by the Euro-Latin American Parliamentary Assembly (EuroLat) also express this commitment. 





However, legal norms, agreements, and international dialogues alone are not sufficient for the eradication of violence against women, nor its most extreme manifestation, feminicide.





Traditionally, States were only responsible for their own actions or those of their agents, but international public law has evolved and currently, the principle of due diligence makes the State responsible for the prevention, investigation, and prosecution of violence, regardless of who commits the crime. The duty of due diligence obliges States to enter the private sphere, where historically, they have not intervened, but where the majority of cases of violence against women occur.







Therefore, it is the duty of the State to take all necessary measures to prevent human rights violations, such as feminicide, before they occur. This means, on the one hand, adopting pertinent laws and policies to prevent, investigate, prosecute, and punish those guilty of abuse, and on the other hand, successfully implement them.


Patricia Jiménez, Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung – European Union, Brussels




References
Brå (2007) Utvecklingen av dödligt våld mot kvinnor i nära relationer. Stockholm: The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention. Available at: https://www.bra.se/download/18.cba82f7130f475a2f180009403/1371914725466/2007_6_utvecklin gen_dodligt_vald_mot_kvinnor.pdf [2016-10-12].
Brå (2016b) Mord och dråp. Available at: https://www.bra.se/bra/brott-och-statistik/mord-ochdrap.html [2016-10-12].
Brå (2016b) Fakta om våld i nära relationer. Available at: https://www.bra.se/bra/brott-ochstatistik/vald-i-nara-relationer.html [2016-10-12].
Nybergh, L. (2016) Dödligt våld i nära relationer – en genomgång av internationell forskning. Göteborg: Västra Götalandsregionen. Available at: http://www.valdinararelationer.se/upload/Våld%20i%20nära%20relationer.se/GTF9.pdf  [2016-1012].

Socialstyrelsen (2016) Dödsfallsutredningar 2014-2015: Barn och vuxna som avlidit med anledning av brott. Stockholm: The National Board of Health and Welfare. Available at: https://www.socialstyrelsen.se/Lists/Artikelkatalog/Attachments/20057/2016-1-31.pdf   [2016-1012].


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Tuesday, October 9, 2018

Feminicide across Europe :Spain


The 2004 Organic Law for integral protection against gender-based violence (GBV) (Law 1/2004) applies only to “violence that men exert against women who are or have been their intimate partners, or who are or have been in an intimate relationship with them, with or without cohabitation”. The Spanish Penal Code specifies several crimes related to violence against women in the case of sexual crimes. The Penal Code increases penalties when the crime is committed under conditions that are specified as GBV. Article 153 of the Penal Code specifies injury crime in relation to GBV. However, the Spanish legislation does not specifically specify femicide as a crime, and homicides and murders of women are included within Title 1 of the Penal Code, which deals with homicide and all its forms.

The restricted approach to GBV in Spain as framed in the Law 1/2004 does not align with the definitions assumed by international organizations, such as UN or the European Union. The restrictive approach to GBV under Spanish law prevents the visibilization and development of intervention for other forms of GBV to which women in Spain are exposed, e.g. murders of women in situations of prostitution, or murders of women when the murderer is not her current or former intimate partner. Official registers for such crimes do not exist in Spain.

The Spanish signature of the Istambul convention, which establishes a broad definition of violence against women based on gender and independent on the relationship between victim and aggressor, implies that the Spanish legislation needs to change accordingly. However, to date, the official response – namely, the reform incorporated in the organic Law 1/2015, 30th March, that modifies the Organic Law 1/1995, 23rd November of the Penal Code – has been insufficient. This reform includes: gender-based discrimination as an aggravating factor (art. 22.4 of the Penal Code.); crimes against life are modified to be considered as aggravated crime, when homicide is committed after sexual aggression (a172 bis); harassment (172 ter) and sharing, without the consent of the victim, of images taken in private locations with the victims’ consent (197.7 of the Penal code). However, Spanish legislation fails as yet to incorporate in the definition of GBV those cases where the aggressor is not a current or former intimate partner. This limitation has been highlighted in the CEDAW report of the 24th of July of 2015, where the need to include other types of GBV – such as caretaker violence, police violence, violence in public spaces, working places and schools – is emphasized. Although the term of femicide is used by certain social and academic institutions, its use is not generalized and it is utilized mainly in relation to the murder of women occurring within intimate relationships. In 2014, the 23rd edition of the Spanish Language Dictionary incorporated the word femicide, defined as “Murder of a woman due to her sex” (http://dle.rae.es/?id=Hjt6Vqr )


1 Data sources

Since 2003, the statistical web of the Government Delegation for GBV of the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality, has incorporated information on deaths due to GBV. In addition, the following information about deaths of women over age 15 is available aggregated by year, in relation to the victim: denouncer’s characteristics, protective orders, violation of restrictive orders, country of birth, age, cohabitation with aggressor, geographical location; in relation to the aggressor: country of birth, age, whether suicide was committed (http://www.violenciagenero.msssi.gob.es/violenciaEnCifras/victimasMortales/home.htm).
Since 2007, the State Observatory of Violence Against Women, under the auspicies of the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality, publishes an annual report with information of all fatality victims of GBV. The latest report published includes information about murders committed in 2013 and includes women older than 15. 
a) The General Council of Judicial Power (C.G.P.J.) publishes annually data on violence against women in the judicial statistics where homicide crimes are reported (http://www.poderjudicial.es/cgpj/es/Temas/Violencia-domestica-y-de-genero/Actividaddel-Observatorio/Datos-estadisticos/?filtroAnio=2015). Since 2007, the Observatory for Domestic and GBV of the CGPJ, created in 2007, has published annually a “Report of death victims due to domestic violence and GBV within intimate relationships”. The latest published report includes information for murders committed in 2013 and includes murders of women older than 15. (http://www.poderjudicial.es/cgpj/es/Temas/Violencia-domesticay-de-genero/Actividad-del-Observatorio/Informes-de-violencia-domestica/). It is important to note that these reports have been employing the term femicide since 2009, when referring to “the violent death of a woman by her current or former partner, or a person who is or has been related to her by a similar affective relationship, and where the aggressor is a man”. 
b) Some non-governmental organizations also gather statistics on the number of women murdered, mainly by their intimate partners or ex-partners. It is important to mention the Federation of Associations of Divorced and Separated women, which facilitates access to media news published by the Spanish press in relation to femicide cases since 1999 through today. (http://www.separadasydivorciadas.org/wordpress/estadisticas/). Additionally, the “Fundación Mujeres femicidio.net” offers information on femicides committed in Spain, in any of its forms, not limited to intimate partner femicide (http://www.feminicidio.net/menufeminicidio-informes-y-cifras). 
(by Santiago Boira Sarto, Chaime Marcuello, Yolanda Rodriguez Castro, Maria Lameiras Fernandez, Laura Otero Garcia, Belén Sanz Barbero, Carmen Vives Cases, Isabel Goicolea Julian) 

In order to fight feminicide/femicide, various Latin American and European countries have adopted increasingly specific laws and legal instruments that penalize feminicide. The ratification of the Belém do Pará Convention1 in Latin America and the entry into force of the Istanbul Convention2  in Europe, demonstrate an increasingly stronger international commitment against this kind of violence. The establishment of the Bi-regional Dialogue on Gender by the European Union (EU) and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), as well as the adoption of the Urgent Resolution on Feminicide in the European Union and Latin America3 by the Euro-Latin American Parliamentary Assembly (EuroLat) also express this commitment.    


However, legal norms, agreements, and international dialogues alone are not sufficient for the eradication of violence against women, nor its most extreme manifestation, feminicide.


Traditionally, States were only responsible for their own actions or those of their agents, but international public law has evolved and currently, the principle of due diligence makes the State responsible for the prevention, investigation, and prosecution of violence, regardless of who commits the crime. The duty of due diligence obliges States to enter the private sphere, where historically, they have not intervened, but where the majority of cases of violence against women occur. 



Therefore, it is the duty of the State to take all necessary measures to prevent human rights violations, such as feminicide, before they occur. This means, on the one hand, adopting pertinent laws and policies to prevent, investigate, prosecute, and punish those guilty of abuse, and on the other hand, successfully implement them. 

Patricia Jiménez, Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung – European Union, Brussels


https://eu.boell.org/sites/default/files/feminicide_eng.pdf

https://www.um.edu.mt/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/308017/March_9_Country_resources.pdf
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Sunday, October 7, 2018

Feminicide across Europe: Slovenia



  In Slovenia, the concept of femicide is not in common use and is not recognized as an expression denoting the homicide of women. Moreover, it is not even currently used in academic circles, nor does it appear in the media and, consequently, is not found among the general population. The concept of femicide is employed only by a few feminist scholars and researchers and a number of NGOs working with women victims of violence. The problem of femicide is still underestimated and under-researched in Slovenia.

22. Sources
In Slovenia, only one official body can provide data on femicides, namely, the Ministry of Interior, where statistical data about homicides of women is systematically collected and the relationship between the victim and the offender is viewed as serious and important data.
Another important source on femicide in Slovena is the first and only study on intimate partner femicide, conducted for PhD research at the Faculty of Arts and Science in Ljubljana, entitled Violence against women and intimate partner homicides of women in Slovenia.
The analysis is based on the review and qualitative analysis of 24 criminal records from all the District courts in Slovenia, for the period between 2000 and 2011.

2 Definition
Is hard to say what the definition of femicide in Slovenia might be, because there is no public debate on the issue. In general, when someone uses the concent of femicide he/she is referring to the killing of women by an intimate partner. However, in the academic field we employ Russell’s definition, “the killing of females by males because they are females” (Russell, 2001, p. 3). We use this definition to stress the importance of the term’s political significance.

(by Milica Antic and Jasna Podreka)


In order to fight feminicide/femicide, various Latin American and European countries have adopted increasingly specific laws and legal instruments that penalize feminicide. The ratification of the Belém do Pará Convention1 in Latin America and the entry into force of the Istanbul Convention2  in Europe, demonstrate an increasingly stronger international commitment against this kind of violence. The establishment of the Bi-regional Dialogue on Gender by the European Union (EU) and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), as well as the adoption of the Urgent Resolution on Feminicide in the European Union and Latin America3 by the Euro-Latin American Parliamentary Assembly (EuroLat) also express this commitment.    


However, legal norms, agreements, and international dialogues alone are not sufficient for the eradication of violence against women, nor its most extreme manifestation, feminicide.


Traditionally, States were only responsible for their own actions or those of their agents, but international public law has evolved and currently, the principle of due diligence makes the State responsible for the prevention, investigation, and prosecution of violence, regardless of who commits the crime. The duty of due diligence obliges States to enter the private sphere, where historically, they have not intervened, but where the majority of cases of violence against women occur. 



Therefore, it is the duty of the State to take all necessary measures to prevent human rights violations, such as feminicide, before they occur. This means, on the one hand, adopting pertinent laws and policies to prevent, investigate, prosecute, and punish those guilty of abuse, and on the other hand, successfully implement them. 

Patricia Jiménez, Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung – European Union, Brussels


http://www.youngfeminist.eu/category/slovenia/
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