Friday, March 16, 2018

What actions are partner countries taking to end violence against women and girls?

There has been a growing momentum to eliminate and prevent all forms of violence against women and girls. Governments have adopted international and regional policy and legal agreements, such as the Beijing Platform for Action in 1995 and the Sustainable Development Goals. At least 119 countries have passed laws on domestic violence, 125 have laws on sexual harassment and 52 have laws on marital rape. The Spotlight Initiative will build on this progress to help eliminate violence against women and girls.

Leer más...

Wednesday, March 14, 2018

What is needed to end and prevent violence against women and girls?

A comprehensive approach is needed, involving a wide range of stakeholders. It must cover the development of laws and policies, prevention of violence before it happens and access to essential services for survivors, as well as include data collection and research. Social mobilisation is also necessary to change social norms and behaviours, including men and boys, traditional and religious leaders, private sector and other relevant stakeholders. Awareness-raising campaigns on the extent and impact of violence are an important component of prevention efforts. They need to be complemented with educational programmes and community mobilization to generate sustained results. Increasing women’s participation in political processes has shown to result in better legislative outcomes for women and a more responsive state. 
Additionally, perhaps the greatest indicator of strong legislation on ending violence against women has been correlated with the existence of a strong women’s civil society movement.
Leer más...

Monday, March 12, 2018

What has the EU achieved?

The EU is working together with UNFPA and UNICEF to fight Female genital mutilation/ cutting (FGM/C) and child marriage in 16 African countries. This is done through an innovative approach aimed at changing social norms and attitudes. The EU 
provided support to organise large-scale community discussion sessions based on human rights, collective decision-making in communities and extended social networks, and community and district-wide public declarations for the abandonment of FGM/C. These activities are starting to bear fruits: with EU and support from other international organisations, Senegal is close to becoming the first country in the world to declare total abandonment of FGM/C. Between 2008 and 2011, the number of villages declaring abandonment increased from 300 to 5,315, about 550 communities or a 16% increase per year. The project has led to comparable successes in Egypt and Sudan. In Pakistan a project is being implemented to fight poverty through women’s empowerment and community mobilisation, building social capital for better access to basic services and income generation. This is done by providing social guidance, technical and financial assistance to the rural poor in Sindh. This programme is expected to increase by 30% and diversify the incomes of over 700 000 targeted households, as well as to deliver access to public services, such as water, education and health for 70% of the targeted households. The new EU-UN Spotlight Initiative, backed by a dedicated financial envelope in the order of EUR 500 million, will enable multistakeholders to intensify action in mutually reinforcing core areas of strengthening legislation and policies, institutions, prevention, services and data at national level, advancing SDG 5 on Gender Equality
Leer más...

Saturday, March 10, 2018

What is the EU doing to end and prevent violence against women and girls?

The EU’s Gender Action Plan 2016-2020 has set an ambitious target to mainstream gender actions across 85% of all new EU initiatives by 2020. Progress is undeniable: 92% of all new initiatives adopted in area of the EU’s foreign policy and 60% of all new initiatives adopted in the EU’s International cooperation and development work have been marked as mainly or significantly aiming at promoting gender equality and/ or women empowerment. In 2016, the European Commission committed EUR 419 million for specific actions for gender equality and women’s empowerment. Among the programmes, the EU funded a specific action targeting 16 Sub-Saharan countries focusing on female genital mutilation. The support (12MEUR to a joint programme led by UNFPA and UNICEF) aimed at engaging with civil society organization men and boys, traditional leaders etc., as to change the social norms which make the mutilation so largely practiced. Data for 2017 have to be released but the EU is supporting different programmes to fight against violence against women and girls. In Zambia, for instance 25M EUR have been allocated to a programme aiming at strengthen the institutional capacity of the national authorities to fight against sexual and gender based violence, to prevent it, changing the social norms and mind set which lead to discrimination and violence, and improving access to comprehensive services for victims. In very recently, a large programme to fight against domestic violence has been adopted for the Pacific region (13M EUR)  Today, the EU has launched the Spotlight initiative together with the UN, showing with this its firm commitment against all forms of violence against women and girls.
Leer más...

Friday, March 9, 2018

What is the UN doing to end and prevent violence against women and girls?

UN entities continue to support the Member States of the UN to further advance the global legal and policy framework in addressing violence against women and girls. The UN Trust Fund to End Violence against Women, which is managed UN Women on behalf of the UN System, provides support to innovative approaches to stem and prevent the pandemic of violence. Since its inception, the fund has provided grants to 426 initiatives in 136 countries, amounting to a total of USD 116 million. The UN Secretary General’s campaign UNiTE to End Violence Against Women, which amongst its many activities initiated Orange Day, proclaims every 25th of the month as a day to raise awareness. It has garnered support for other high-profile initiatives from celebrities, including sports stars in Europe, to raise the profile of the issue.
Leer más...

Thursday, March 8, 2018

8 March: International Woman’s Day

Leer más...

Tuesday, March 6, 2018

Are there reliable data to show the prevalence of violence against women and girls?

Understanding the extent, the nature, and the consequences of violence against women and girls is important to inform legislation, policies and programmes. To that end, the EU and UN Member States have made efforts to collect data and compile statistics related to the prevalence of different forms of violence against women and girls, especially domestic and intimate partner violence. The availability of prevalence data on violence against women and girls, however, remains uneven across and within countries. Quality, reliability and comparability of the data across and within countries remain a challenge.
Leer más...

Sunday, March 4, 2018


  • We live in a country whose constitution guarantees total equality between men and women in all fields (articles 21 and 46) in addition to engaging the State in promoting women’s rights and enforcing such equality in practice.
  • We live in a country who signed, ratified and officially removed all reservations to the International “Convention on the Elimination of all forms of discrimination against Women” (CEDAW). Each signatory country is bound to adopt and apply national legislation that complies with the convention.
  • We live in a country who adopted on last August 11th, a historical and comprehensive law to end all forms of violence against women, including economic violence.
  • We live in a country whose law imposes on women to contribute to the family expenses if they own properties. (Article 23 of the Family Code, CSP).
  • We live in a country where inequality in inheritance slows down female entrepreneurship, impoverishes women and reduces their autonomy. Only 12 % currently own a dwelling and only 14 % own land. The scarcity of resources inherited by women significantly reduces their access to property and credit. This, in turn, hinders their autonomy and increase their vulnerability and that of their family.
  • We live in a country where women are more and more educated, capable and skilled (they represent 53 % of students in the secondary school and 66 % in the Tunisian university). They contribute as much as men to the household needs in all categories of expenditure. They deserve therefore, an egalitarian distribution of means and inheritance.
  • We live in a country where, despite the principle of equality between women and men, stipulated in founding texts and regulations and despite advancements obtained by women, important dimensions of gender inequality, patriarchal practices and gender based violence, remain to be addressed.
Maintaining gender inequality in inheritance is not only discriminating and anti-constitutional, but it also hampers women’s access to full citizenship status.
Equality in inheritance is a precondition to build a democracy with a full citizenship for all Tunisians and to accomplish the modernization of our society.
That's why as 30 years ago, as 10 years ago, against gender discrimination in inheritance law and against injustice, we invite you to join our fight and our big March for justice and equality in the Inheritance, which has been our struggle for decades, next 10 march 2018.
Join us, numerous, men, women and allies in saying “Yes for the Gender Equality in Inheritance”!
So that Tunisia, country of revolution, becomes also, the country of Women’s Rights!
As long as our claim will not be heard, we shall continue our fight and keep the momentum.
The Tunisian National Coalition for Equality in Inheritance
  • PS: Please share our call with friends and networks. Our gathering will start at 14 h, from Bab Saadoun to join the gardens of the Bardo Museum, where a music concert, led by AIDA Niati Director of the Conservatoire of Music "Andalousies", will be held. 18 women singers will perform in 10 different languages from the Mediterranean.
Leer más...

What are the root causes of violence against women and girls?

Violence against women and girls is a complex issue that is rooted in gender inequality and discrimination, as well as unequal power relations between men and women which exist in varying degrees across all communities in the world. Low economic and social status of women increases the risk of violence that women face. Increasing economic independence is important to help survivors leave abusive relationships. Prevention work must lie at the core of addressing this challenge. But despite some promising practices, prevention interventions remain small-scale, fragmented and stand-alone activities, under-resourced and lacking impact evaluation.

Leer más...

Friday, March 2, 2018

What are the consequences of violence against women and girls?

The impact of violence ranges from immediate to long term physical, sexual and mental health consequences for women and girls, including death. It also has tremendous personal, societal and economic costs all around the globe: from greater health care and legal expenses to productivity losses.

Leer más...

Wednesday, February 28, 2018

How many women and girls are victims of violence?

Violence against women and girls is one of the most systematic and widespread human rights violations: 35% of women worldwide are estimated to have experienced at some point in their lives either physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence or sexual violence by a non-partner. In some countries, this figure goes up to 70%. Worldwide, more than 700 million women alive today were married as children. Of those women, more than 1 in 3—or some 250 million—were married before the age of 15. About 70% of all human trafficking victims detected globally are women and girls. At least 200 million women and girls alive today have undergone female genital mutilation/cutting in 30 countries. Around 120 million girls worldwide (over 1 in 10) have experienced forced intercourse or other forced sexual acts. By far the most common perpetrators of sexual violence against girls are current or former husbands, partners or boyfriends.
Leer más...

Monday, February 26, 2018

What is the EU-UN Spotlight Initiative to eliminate violence against women and girls?

The European Union and the United Nations have launched a new partnership to eliminate all forms of violence against women and girls. The EU and the UN have launched a new partnership to eliminate all forms of violence against women and girls. It galvanises political commitment at the highest levels and contributes to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and more specifically Goal 5 on Gender Equality. It will do so by building new multistakeholder partnerships and providing large-scale, targeted support, backed by an initial dedicated financial envelope in the order of EUR 500 million. The Initiative will focus on all forms of violence against women and girls that are prevalent and contribute to gender inequality. Its focus is on: domestic and family violence; sexual and gender-based violence; harmful practices; and trafficking in human beings and sexual and economic (labour) exploitation.
Leer más...

Saturday, February 24, 2018


From the halls of the United Nations to communities around the world, much has been done to raise awareness of child marriage. But sometimes the myths about what drives child marriage persist. Here are eight common misconceptions about child marriage – and why they’re wrong.

A Google search for “child marriage” will bring up photos of Indian brides or adolescent mothers from Africa. But child marriage is a global problem that cuts across countries, regions, cultures and religions. The countries with the highest numbers of child brides range from Niger to Indonesia to Brazil. The practice also happens in parts of North America and Europe.

In many communities, child marriage has been a tradition for decades, if not centuries. So much so that it can be seen as a core part of the culture. But not all cultural practices are positive. Child marriage deprives girls of education and economic opportunities, and puts their health and safety at risk. The solution is not to condemn all traditions, but to work with communities to change traditions from within. As Girls Not Brides champion Graça Machel always says:

Child marriage is driven by gender inequality. But boys are married off too. According to UNICEF, 156 million men alive today were married before 18. Child marriage often pushes boys into the workforce and forces them to take on adult responsibilities before they are ready.

Child marriage is driven by factors that go beyond parents’ individual decisions. Parents might feel they have no choice given the circumstances, or think they’re doing the best for their daughters. Ignoring the root causes of child marriage, or attacking the value system of people who practice it, will only alienate girls and their parents. When parents see how much better off girls are in school and out of marriage we can create change.

The media often focuses on stories of girls married at a very young age. While these stories happen, the vast majority of child marriages involve adolescent girls. Globally, the rates of marriage of under-15s have gradually declined. But the marriage rates of 16 to 17-year-old girls have stagnated or increased.

Behind this trend lie deeper problems: lack of educational and employment opportunities for girls past secondary school, as well as the social and family pressure to marry – especially if they already have a boyfriend. In Nepal, for instance, there has been an increase in “love marriages” where adolescent boys and girls decide to marry.

The consequences of child marriage do not just stay within the family. When 15 million girls are married before 18 every year, everyone is affected. Child marriage perpetuates cycles of poverty, inequality and oppression – from one generation to another. It is one of the most blatant manifestations of gender inequality worldwide. It should concern us all.

Child marriage is not linked to a single religion. It happens to girls of Hindu, Muslim or Catholic faith, as well as girls from other faiths. In fact, religious leaders play a crucial role in tackling child marriage. They can check that the bride and the groom are both above 18 before a religious wedding, promote progressive interpretation of religious texts, and help people understand that their religion does not condone child marriage.

Girls can play a huge role in ending child marriage if they have access to education and know about their rights. Many girls who once faced child marriage, now advocate for an end to the practice. Girls speaking from experience are well placed to change the minds of their peers and community members.

The causes and drivers of child marriage are as varied as they are complex. And by constantly challenging the myths about child marriage and setting the record straight we are all a step closer to solving a problem that affects 15 million girls each year.

Leer más...

Thursday, February 22, 2018


What are the policy steps that countries can take to close the digital gender gap and ensure full digital inclusion? Rapid progress is possible if policymakers take immediate action to REACT — that is, to focus on Rights, Education, Access, Content, and Targets — to close the gender digital divide: 


Protect and enhance everyone’s rights online. The web can’t serve as an empowering space unless we know everyone’s rights will be protected online. We must ensure the web is a safe space for women and protect fundamental rights such as freedom of speech and privacy, and that policy, legislative, and regulatory processes uphold digital rights.


Use education to equip everyone – especially women – with the skills they need to access and use the web effectively. Our research shows that education is the most powerful tool we have to have close this gap. We must include digital skills in primary and secondary school curricula in every country around the world, especially targeted at girls; we must also take steps to eradicate the gender gap in access to higher and tertiary education by ensuring that women have equal access to tertiary education opportunities.


Deliver affordable — or free — access to an open web. Affordability remains a major obstacle to universal internet access across the globe; women, on average, earn less than men, resulting in a higher real cost to connect. Countries must adopt and work towards a more ambitious ‘1 for 2’ affordability target of  – 1GB of data monthly for less than 2% of monthly income. Public access programmes that offer free or subsidised ways to connect in public spaces will enable those that still might not be able to afford a connection, even once prices have reduced, to come online.


Ensure relevant and empowering content for women is available and used. Unless content on the web is valuable and empowering, people simply won’t use it. Governments can play an important role here both by delivering vital services online and ensuring important content is available in local languages. As content and service delivery providers, governments must ensure that critical government content relevant to women, including information on sexual and reproductive health, legal rights, and digital financial services, is readily available online in local languages.


Set and measure concrete gender-equity targets. We want every country in the world to update their connectivity targets as mandated by the SDGs, including clearly laying out how they will close the gender gap and for data on progress towards these targets to be regularly published in open formats so that everyone can keep tabs on progress and look for creative solutions.
Leer más...

Tuesday, February 20, 2018



The Women Who Walk Miles To Feed Their Families
Thank You
Women Who Love When No Love Is Returned
Thank You
Women Who Dance The Stories Of The Ancients
Thank You
Women Who Lose Their Children And Keep On Going
Thank You
Women Who Speak Their Truth To Educate Others
Thank You
Women Of Beauty Who Know Their Power Is To Share
Thank You
Women Who Mother When  Mothering Is Called Upon For Healing
Thank You
Women Who Love Men Enough To Respect Their Differences
Thank You
Women Who Love Themselves Enough To Come Forward
Thank You
Women Who Know The Truth Of Their Soul
Thank You
In Honor Of You
We Honor Women
And Say
Thank You

 Joana Ukali
Leer más...

Sunday, February 18, 2018


A Tribute to brave activist we have lost

 A Tribute  to Women Human Rights Defenders (WHRDs)  no longer with us

We bring into our collective memory and carry their legacy of struggle as our torch in feminist and women’s rights movements.
Leer más...

Friday, February 16, 2018


A Tribute to brave activist we have lost

 A Tribute  to Women Human Rights Defenders (WHRDs)  no longer with us

We bring into our collective memory and carry their legacy of struggle as our torch in feminist and women’s rights movements.
Leer más...

Wednesday, February 14, 2018


A Tribute to brave activist we have lost

 A Tribute  to Women Human Rights Defenders (WHRDs)  no longer with us

We bring into our collective memory and carry their legacy of struggle as our torch in feminist and women’s rights movements.
Leer más...

Sunday, February 11, 2018

SOPHIA JEX BLAKE: Speech for admission to the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh-1871

"I called on Dr. Christison, who told me curtly that the question was entirely decided in his own mind, and that it was useless for me to enter upon it. I did not call on Dr. Andrew Wood; but I was introduced to him in Sir James Simpson's room by Sir James, whose large-heartedness and large-mindedness made him from the first our warm friend and helper. On this introduction, I asked Dr. Wood to favour me with five minutes' conversation, to which his reply was that he would rather not, and turned on his heel and pursued a conversation with other persons in the room. These are specimens of the way in which a few a - very few only - met me on my arrival in Edinburgh; and I must do those few the justice to say that their conduct has been absolutely and uniformly consistent ever since. Never have we applied for educational facilities of any kind but they have done their best to meet us with an uncompromising refusal, so far as it was in their power.

When the Senatus Academicus gave me leave to enter as a visitor the Botanical and Natural History classes, it was the members of this hostile clique who got a veto put on the permission. When we applied for permission merely for separate classes, exactly the same dead opposition confronted us. When, through the liberality of public feeling, this boon was granted to us, the same adversaries continued to meet us at every corner, even after one of the chief had stated publicly in the Senatus that, the experiment once begun, he would use every means in his power to give it a fair trial.

We endeavoured to make private arrangements at great expense for separate anatomical instruction; we were told repeatedly that our efforts would be useless (as indeed they proved), because certain all-powerful members of the Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons had resolved to ostracise any medical men who agreed to give us instructions. ("Oh, oh.") When the absolute impossibility of getting a complete course of separate instruction drove us to ask admittance to the ordinary classes, to which several Professors would willingly have admitted us, the same phalanx of opponents raised the cry of indelicacy - knowing that thus they might prevail in ranging against us public opinion, which would have been on our side had the real issue - education or no education - been declared. And now I want to point out that it was certain of these same men, who had, so to speak, pledged themselves from the first to defeat our hopes of education, and render all our efforts abortive - who, sitting in their places on the Infirmary Board, took advantage of the almost irresponsible power with which they were temporarily invested to thwart and nullify all our efforts...

Till then, during a period of five weeks, the conduct of the students with whom we had been associated in Surgeons' Hall in the most trying of all our studies, that of Practical Anatomy, had been quiet, respectful, and in every way inoffensive. They had evidently accepted our presence there in earnest silent work as a matter of course, and Dr. Handyside, in answer to a question of mine after the speeches made at the meeting of the General Council, assured me that, in the course of some twenty sessions, he had never had a month of such quiet earnest work as since we entered his rooms. But at a certain meeting of the managers, when our memorial was presented a majority of those present were, I understand, in favour of immediately admitting us to the Infirmary. The minority alleged want of due notice to the question, and succeeded in obtaining an adjournment. What means were used in the interim I cannot say, or what influence was brought to bear: but I do know that from that day the conduct of the students was utterly changed, that those who had hitherto been quiet and courteous became impertinent and offensive; and at last came the day of that disgraceful riot, when the College gates were shut in our faces and our little band bespattered with mud from head to foot. ("Shame.") It is true that other students, who were too manly to dance as puppets on such ignoble strings, came indignantly to our rescue, that by them the gates were wrenched open and we protected in our return to our homes. But none the less was it evident that some new influence, wholly distinct from any intrinsic facts, had been at work....

This I do know, that the riot was not wholly or mainly due to the students at Surgeons' Hall, I know that Dr. Christison's class assistant was one of the leading rioters - (Hisses and "Order")- and the foul language he used could only be excused on the supposition I heard that he was intoxicated. I do not say that Dr. Christison knew of or sanctioned his presence, but I do say that I think he would not have been there had he thought the doctor would have strongly objected to his presence.

Dr. Christison: I must again appeal to you, my lord. I think the language used regarding my assistant is language that no one is entitled to use at such an assembly as this -(hear)- where a gentleman is not present to defend himself, and to say whether it be true or not. I do not know whether it is true or not, but I know that my assistant is a thorough gentleman, otherwise he would never have been my assistant, and I appeal to you again, my lord, whether language such as this is to be allowed in the mouth of any person. I am perfectly sure there is not one gentleman in the whole assembly who would have used such language in regard to an absentee.

Miss Jex-Blake: If Dr. Christison prefers...

Dr. Christison: I wish nothing but that this foul language shall be put an end to.

The Lord Provost: I do not know what the foul language is. She merely said that, in her opinion...

Dr. Christison: In her opinion the gentleman was intoxicated.

Miss Jex-Blake: I did not say he was intoxicated. I said I was told he was.

The Lord Provost: Withdraw the word "intoxicated."

Miss Jex-Blake: I said it was the only excuse for his conduct. If Dr. Christison prefers that I should say he used the language when sober, I will withdraw the other supposition. (Laughter.)"
From The Englishwoman's Review, April 1871

Her opponents were the universities, the male students, and the British Medical Association. She eventually established a practice in Edinburgh where she joined the women's suffrage movement.
Sophia Jex Blake was a lesbian and never married; she once said: "I believe I love women too much ever to love a man" (Todd, p.65). In 1899 she retired to Tunbridge Wells where she died in 1912, aged 62.
Leer más...

Friday, February 9, 2018

Gender equality and women’s empowerment (GEWE) in Africa: Institutional culture shift

GEWE in foreign aid since Beijing
 Enthusiasm in the late 1990s, quietness in the early 2000s, steadily growing attention and contestation since the late 2000s
 The organisational origin of aid agencies (bank, foundation, diplomacy, etc.) significantly influences how GEWE is taken up
 The challenges of even committed agencies to seriously address GEWE (domestic politics, organisational pressures and priorities at the headquarter level)

Implementation challenges
Challenges at the country level of aid agencies:
 Numerous, changing priorities and overstretched staff
 Limited capacities
 Gender focal points are often junior staff working part-time on GEWE
 Limited room for manoeuvre → Attention to GEWE becomes a tick-box exercise

Challenges in African countries
 Government commitment: GEWE in national politics
 Stability, fragility and post-conflict recovery
 Religious and customary authorities
 Gender relations are power relations and deeply embedded in cultures that change only slowly (like in Europe)

Recommendations (1)
 Prioritise the priorities and recognise the political limitations
 Perceive the institutional culture shift as a 10years, SDG-like project
 Be realistic – avoid: ‘We were bad in the past, we will be good in the future.’
 Delegate as much as possible to country offices permitting these to carry out pragmatic aid management (flexible, context dependent, politically sensitive, and liberal in relation to EU policies)

Recommendations (2)
 Distinguish between types of African countries:
– Strong governments committed to GEWE: Budget support and political dialogue
– Governments not committed to GEWE: Targeted activities
– Fragile situations: Targeted activities
– Post-conflict recovery: Targeted activities and political dialogue

Leer más...

Wednesday, February 7, 2018

Goal 17: Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development

A stronger commitment to partnership and cooperation is needed to achieve the SDGs. Attaining the Goals will require coherent policies, an enabling environment for sustainable development at all levels and by all actors, and a reinvigorated Global Partnership for Sustainable Development. Meeting the means of implementation targets is key to realizing the 2030 Agenda, as is the full implementation of the Addis Ababa Action Agenda. Incremental progress has been made in these areas, but more is needed. 
  • From 2015 to 2016, official development assistance (ODA) rose by 8.9 per cent in real terms to 142.6 billion US dollars, reaching a new peak. Despite this progress, bilateral aid to LDCs fell by 3.9 per cent in real terms.  
  • Debt service is trending upwards. From 2000 to 2011, debt service in lower-middleincome countries fell from 12.9 per cent to 3.6 per cent, before rising slowly to 6.1 per cent in 2015.  
  • In 2016, international remittances totalled 575 billion US dollars, 75 per cent of which (429 billion US dollars) flowed to developing countries. However, remittances to developing countries fell in 2016 for a second consecutive year, declining by 2.4 per cent over 2015.  fIn 2016, about 80 per cent of the population in developed regions had Internet access, compared to 40 per cent in developing regions and 15 per cent in LDCs.  
  • In 2014, financial support for statistical capacity in developing countries (338 million US dollars) accounted for only 0.18 per cent of total ODA. From 2007 to 2016, 89 per cent of countries or areas around the world conducted at least one population and housing census; 25 countries or areas failed to conduct a census during this period. 

Leer más...

Monday, February 5, 2018

Goal 16: Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

Peace, justice and effective, accountable and inclusive institutions are at the core of sustainable development. Progress in promoting peaceful and inclusive societies remains uneven across and within countries. Violent conflicts have increased in recent years, and a number of high-intensity armed conflicts are causing large numbers of civilian casualties and driving millions of people from their homes. 

  •  In 2015, the intentional homicide rate in countries with high income inequality (Gini index >0.45) was nine times that of countries with low income inequality (Gini index <0.35). 
  • In 76 countries with available data from 2005 to 2016, about 8 in 10 children aged 1 to 14 years were subjected to some form of psychological aggression and/or physical punishment on a regular basis.  
  • More than 570 different human trafficking flows, which criss-cross the globe, were identified by law enforcement officers between 2012 and 2014. The large majority of identified trafficking victims in 2014 were women and girls (71 per cent), and more than a quarter were children. 
  • Globally, the proportion of people held in detention without being tried or sentenced for a crime was 31 per cent in 2013-2015.  
  • According to data from 2005 to 2016, over 18 per cent of firms worldwide reported receiving at least one bribery payment request. The share of firms in low- and lowermiddle-income countries was 25 per cent, versus 4 per cent in high-income countries.  
  • Data reported for 147 countries from 2010 to 2016 indicate that 71 per cent of children under age 5 worldwide have had their births registered; the birth registration rate in sub-Saharan Africa stands at just 46 per cent. 
Leer más...

Saturday, February 3, 2018

Goal 15: Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss

Protected and restored ecosystems and the biodiversity they support can help mitigate climate change and provide increased resilience in the face of mounting human pressures and natural disasters. Healthy ecosystems also produce multiple benefits for communities that rely on them. Goal 15 focuses on preserving and sustainably using the earth’s terrestrial species and ecosystems. 

  •  From 2010 to 2015, the annual net loss of forest area globally was less than half that of the 1990s. The proportion of land area covered by forest decreased from 31.6 per cent  in 1990 to 30.8 per cent in 2010 and 30.6 per cent in 2015.
  •  From 2000 to 2017, average worldwide coverage of terrestrial, freshwater and mountain KBAs by protected areas increased from 35 per cent to 47 per cent, from 32 per cent to 43 per cent, and from 39 per cent to 49 per cent, respectively. 
  •  Biodiversity loss, however, continues at an alarming rate. Corals, amphibians and cycads are in serious decline due to distinct and worsening threats. Bleaching, driven by climate change and local impacts, has affected the health of coral reefs worldwide, which could disappear completely by 2050. Amphibians also face a high risk of extinction, with 41 per cent already threatened.
  •  Illicit poaching and trafficking of wildlife continues to thwart conservation efforts, with nearly 7,000 species of animals and plants reported in illegal trade involving 120 countries. In 2013, elephant ivory, rosewood, rhinoceros horn and reptiles comprised 70 per cent of total wildlife seizures.

Leer más...

Thursday, February 1, 2018

Goal 14: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

Oceans cover almost three quarters of the planet, comprising the largest ecosystem on earth. The increasingly adverse impacts of climate change (including ocean acidification), overfishing and marine pollution are jeopardizing recent gains in protecting portions of the world’s oceans.

  •  In 2017, protected areas cover 13.2 per cent of the marine environment under national jurisdiction, 0.25 per cent of the marine environment beyond national jurisdiction, and 5.3 per cent of the total global ocean area. The average coverage of marine key biodiversity areas (KBAs) by protected areas has risen from 32 per cent in 2000 to 45 per cent in 2017. 
  •  The proportion of marine fish stocks worldwide that have been overfished—that is, are at biologically unsustainable levels—increased from 10 per cent in 1974 to 31 per cent in 2013. 
  • Oceans absorb up to 30 per cent of the annual emissions of CO2 generated by human activity. However, the absorbed CO2 also leads to an increase in the acidity of seawater, which weakens the shells and skeletons of many marine species, such as corals.  As atmospheric CO2 levels rise, estimates indicate that oceans could be nearly 150 per cent more acidic by 2100.
  •  Of the 63 large marine ecosystems evaluated under the Transboundary Waters Assessment Programme, 16 per cent are in the “high” or “highest” risk categories for coastal eutrophication. By 2050, it is estimated that coastal eutrophication will increase in 21 per cent of these large ecosystems.

Leer más...

Tuesday, January 30, 2018

Goal 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

Planetary warming continued in 2016, setting a record of about 1.1 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial period. The extent of global sea ice fell to 4.14 million square kilometres in 2016, the second lowest on record. Mitigating climate change and its impacts will require building on the momentum achieved by the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. Stronger efforts are also needed to build resilience and limit climate-related hazards and natural disasters. 

  •  The Paris Agreement entered into force on 4 November 2016, marking a shift in focus towards implementation of action for the climate and sustainable development. 
  •  As of 7 June 2017, 148 Parties had ratified the Paris Agreement; of these, 142 Parties (141 countries and the european Commission) had communicated their first nationally determined contributions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Secretariat.
  •  The number of deaths attributed to natural hazards continues to rise, despite progress in implementing disaster risk reduction strategies. From 1990 to 2015, more than 1.6 million people died in internationally reported natural hazards.
  •  Many countries have begun implementing national and local disaster risk reduction strategies. In 2014-2015, most reporting countries indicated that environmental impact assessments, legislation on protected areas, climate change adaptation projects and programmes, and integrated planning played a major role in reducing underlying risk factors. 
Leer más...

Sunday, January 28, 2018

Goal 12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

Sustainable consumption and production patterns enable efficient resource use and can reduce the impact of economic activities on the environment. To that end, this Goal focuses on decoupling economic growth from resource use, and ensuring that hazardous chemicals and wastes are managed in a way that minimizes their impact on human lives and the environment. 

  •  Globally, the material footprint of human beings increased from 48.5 billion metric tons in 2000 to 69.3 billion metric tons in 2010. The material footprint per capita increased from 8 metric tons per person to 10 metric tons per person over the same period. 
  •  In 2010, Australia and New Zealand had the highest material footprint per capita (35 metric tons per person), followed by europe and Northern America (20 metric tons per person); sub-Saharan Africa had the lowest (2.5 metric tons per person).
  •  Eastern and South-eastern Asia accounted for 42 per cent of global domestic material consumption (DMC), reflecting rapid industrialization in the region. 
  •  Almost all United Nations Member States are party to at least one global environmental agreement on chemicals and hazardous waste. However, between 2010 and 2014, only 51 per cent of Parties to the Stockholm Convention, 57 per cent of Parties to the Basel Convention, and 71 per cent of Parties to the rotterdam Convention fully met their reporting commitments under these agreements
Leer más...

Friday, January 26, 2018

Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

The pace of urban growth has been unprecedented. More than half the world’s population, or nearly 4 billion people, lived in cities in 2015. However, while cities are incubators of innovation and help foster increased employment and economic growth, rapid urbanization has brought with it enormous challenges, including inadequate housing, increased air pollution, and lack of access to basic services and infrastructure.

  •  The proportion of the urban population living in slums worldwide fell from 28 per cent in 2000 to 23 per cent in 2014. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, more than half (56 per cent) of urban dwellers lived in slum conditions.
  •  From 2000 to 2015, in all regions of the world, the expansion of urban land outpaced the growth of urban populations, resulting in urban sprawl. 
  •  According to data from cities in 101 countries from 2009 to 2013, approximately 65 per cent of the population was served by municipal waste collection. 
  •  In 2014, 9 in 10 people living in urban areas breathed air that did not meet the World Health Organization’s air quality guidelines value for particulate matter (PM 2.5). 
  •  As of May 2017, 149 countries had fully or partially implemented national-level urban policies, most of which are aligned with priority areas identified in the SDGs.

Leer más...

Wednesday, January 24, 2018

Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries

Goal 10 calls for reducing inequality within and among countries, ensuring safe,  orderly and regular migration, and strengthening the voices of developing countries  in international economic and financial decision-making. 

  •  In 49 of 83 countries with data for the period 2011-2015, the per capita incomes of the poorest 40 per cent of the population grew more rapidly than the national average, leading to a reduction in income inequality. 
  •  reforms at the International Monetary Fund have led to increased voting shares  for developing countries, yet in many international organizations their voting shares  remain far below their overall membership levels.
  •  The international trade community continues to grant more favourable access conditions to LDCs: the proportion of tariff lines for exports from LDCs with zero  tariffs increased from 49 per cent in 2005 to 65 per cent in 2015.
  •  On average, the cost of sending remittances home is above 7 per cent of the amount remitted, significantly higher than the 3 per cent target. New and improved technologies, such as prepaid cards and mobile operators, helped reduce these fees to between 2 per cent and 4 per cent, but are not yet widely available or used in many remittance corridors.

Leer más...

Monday, January 22, 2018

Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

Infrastructure, industrialization and innovation are three drivers of economic growth. When inclusivity, resilience and sustainability are factored into the implementation of these driving forces, economic growth can support sustainable development. 

  •  In 2015, the economic impact of air transport was 2.7 trillion US dollars (3.5 per cent  of global GDP). The least developed countries (LDCs), landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) and small island developing States (SIDS) accounted for limited air travel and freight volumes—each country group comprised only a small fraction (1 to 2.7 per cent) of the global total.
  •  Between 2005 and 2016, manufacturing value added (MVA) per capita increased by almost 59 per cent in LDCs, yet was still only about 2 per cent of that in Europe and Northern America. 
  • Between 2000 and 2014, steady reductions were observed in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from manufacturing per unit of MVA in most regions of the world and in all 10 of the largest manufacturing countries.
  •  Global investment in research and development increased at an average annual rate of 4.5 per cent between 2000 and 2014. It reached 1.8 trillion US dollars (purchasing power parity) in 2014—1.7 per cent of global GDP. 
  •  Coverage by a mobile cellular signal has become almost universal. In 2016, 95 per cent of the world’s population was in range of at least a second-generation (2G) signal and 84 per cent received at least a third-generation (3G) signal. 

Leer más...

Saturday, January 20, 2018

Goal 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all

Economic growth is a principal driver of sustainable development. When this growth is sustained and inclusive, more people can escape poverty as opportunities for full and productive employment expand. To allow future generations to benefit from today’s economic growth, such growth should be environmentally sound and not the result of unsustainable exploitation of resources.

  •  The average annual growth rate of real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita expanded from 0.9 per cent over the period 2005-2009 to 1.6 per cent in 2010-2015. Real GDP growth in the least developed countries (LDCs) averaged 4.9 per cent in  2010-2015, short of the target of at least 7 per cent annually.
  •  Growth in labour productivity—measured by GDP per worker—slowed sharply after the financial crisis of 2008-2009. It grew at an average annual rate of 1.9 per cent between 2009 and 2016, compared to 2.9 per cent between 2000 and 2008. 
  •  The global unemployment rate fell from 6.1 per cent in 2010 to 5.7 per cent in 2016. Despite progress overall, youth (aged 15 to 24 years) were nearly three times more likely than adults to be without a job, with unemployment rates of 12.8 per cent and 4.4 per cent, respectively. 
  •  The number of children aged 5 to 17 engaged in child labour declined from 246 million in 2000 to 168 million in 2012. Still, around 1 in 10 children worldwide were engaged in child labour in 2012; more than half of them (85 million) were exposed to hazardous forms of work. 

Leer más...

Thursday, January 18, 2018

Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

Universal access to affordable, reliable and sustainable energy services requires expanding access to electricity and clean cooking fuels and technologies, as well as improving energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy. To achieve this Goal, bolder financing and policies will be needed, along with the willingness of countries to embrace new technologies on a much more ambitious scale. 

  •  In 2014, 85.3 per cent of the global population had access to electricity, up from 77.6 per cent in 2000. However, 1.06 billion people still lived without this basic service.
  •  While 96 per cent of urban residents could access electricity in 2014, the share was  only 73 per cent in rural areas. 
  •  Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking climbed to 57 per cent in 2014, up from 50 per cent in 2000. Still, more than 3 billion people, most of them in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, lack access to clean cooking fuels and technologies and are exposed to high levels of household air pollution.
  •  The share of renewable energy in final energy consumption grew modestly from 2010 to 2014—from 17.5 to 18.3 per cent. Water, solar and wind power generation accounted for most of the increase.
  •  Globally, primary energy intensity improved by 2.1 per cent a year from 2012 to 2014. However, this pace is insufficient to double the global rate of energy efficiency improvements as called for in the target.

Leer más...

Tuesday, January 16, 2018

Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

Goal 6 aims to tackle challenges related to drinking water, sanitation and hygiene for populations, as well as to water-related ecosystems. Without quality, sustainable water resources and sanitation, progress in many other areas across the SDGs, including health, education and poverty reduction, will also be held back. 

  •  In 2015, 5.2 billion people (71 per cent of the global population) used a “safely managed” drinking water service—an improved source located on premises, available when needed and free from contamination.
  •  In 2015, 2.9 billion people (39 per cent of the global population) used a “safely managed” sanitation service—a basic facility that safely disposed of human waste.
  •  Open defecation, practised by 892 million people (12 per cent of the global population) in 2015, continues to pose serious health risks.
  •  More than 2 billion people globally are living in countries with excess water stress. Northern Africa and Western Asia, as well as Central and Southern Asia, experience water stress levels above 60 per cent, indicating the strong probability of future water scarcity. 
Leer más...

Sunday, January 14, 2018

Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

Gender inequality persists worldwide, depriving women and girls of their basic rights and opportunities. Achieving gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls will require more vigorous efforts, including legal frameworks, to counter deeply rooted gender-based discrimination often resulting from patriarchal attitudes and related social norms. 

  •  One in five girls and women (aged 15 to 49) who have ever been married or in union reported they had been subjected to physical and/or sexual violence by an intimate partner in the previous 12 months, according to surveys undertaken between 2005  and 2016 in 87 countries.
  •  Around 2000, nearly one in three women between 20 and 24 years of age reported  that they were married before age 18; around 2015, the ratio had declined to roughly  one in four.
  •  According to surveys undertaken around 2015 in 30 countries where the practice of female genital mutilation is concentrated, over a third (35 per cent) of girls between  the ages of 15 and 19 had been subjected to the procedure. 
  •  On average, women spent almost triple the amount of time on unpaid domestic and  care work as men, based on data from 2000 to 2016.
  •  Women’s participation in single or lower houses of national parliaments worldwide reached only 23.4 per cent in 2017. In the majority of the 67 countries with data from 2009 to 2015, fewer than a third of senior- and middle-management positions were  held by women.

Leer más...

Friday, January 12, 2018

Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all

Goal 4 aims to ensure that all people have access to quality education and the opportunity for lifelong learning. The Goal goes beyond school enrolment and looks at proficiency levels, the availability of trained teachers and adequate school facilities, and disparities  in education outcomes. 

  •  In 2014, 2 out of 3 children worldwide participated in pre-primary or primary  education in the year prior to the official entrance age for primary school, compared  to only 4 in 10 children in the poorest countries. 
  •  Despite considerable gains in primary school enrolment between 2000 and 2014, 9 per cent of primary-school-aged children worldwide were out of school in 2014,  with little progress since 2008. 
  •  Surveys undertaken between 2007 and 2015 in selected countries show that children and adolescents from the richest 20 per cent of households achieved greater proficiency in reading than those from the poorest 20 per cent of households, and urban children scored higher in reading than rural children.
  •  Data for 2011 indicate that only about one quarter of schools in sub-Saharan Africa had electricity, less than half had access to drinking water, and only 69 per cent had toilets (with many lacking separate sanitation facilities for girls and boys).

Leer más...

Wednesday, January 10, 2018

Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

Goal 3 addresses all major health priorities and calls for improving reproductive, maternal and child health; ending communicable diseases; reducing non-communicable diseases and other health hazards; and ensuring universal access to safe, effective, quality and affordable medicines and vaccines as well as health coverage. 

  •  Between 2000 and 2015, the global maternal mortality ratio declined by 37 per cent, and the under-5 mortality rate fell by 44 per cent. However, 303,000 women died during pregnancy or childbirth and 5.9 million children under age 5 died worldwide in 2015. Most of these deaths were from preventable causes. 
  •  The period between 2000 and 2015 saw a 46 per cent reduction in HIV incidence; a 17 per cent decline in the incidence of tuberculosis; a 41 per cent decrease in the incidence of malaria; and a 21 per cent drop in people requiring mass or individual treatment and care for neglected tropical diseases. 
  •  The risk of dying between the ages of 30 and 70 from one of four main non-communicable diseases (NCDs)—cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory disease—fell from 23 per cent to 19 per cent between 2000 and 2015, not rapidly enough to meet the 2030 target.
  •  Nearly 800,000 suicides occurred worldwide in 2015, with men about twice as likely  to die by suicide as women.
  •  In 2013, around 1.25 million people died from road traffic injuries, an increase of 13 per cent since 2000.
  •  Globally in 2012, household air pollution from cooking with unclean fuels and inefficient technologies led to an estimated 4.3 million deaths; another 3 million deaths were attributed to ambient air pollution from traffic, industrial sources, waste burning and residential fuel combustion

Leer más...

Monday, January 8, 2018

Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

Goal 2 addresses a fundamental human need—access to nutritious, healthy food, and the means by which it can be sustainably secured for everyone. Tackling hunger cannot be addressed by increasing food production alone. Well-functioning markets, increased incomes for smallholder farmers, equal access to technology and land, and additional investments all play a role in creating a vibrant and productive agricultural sector that builds food security. 

  •  The proportion of undernourished people worldwide declined from 15 per cent in  2000-2002 to about 11 per cent in 2014-2016. Globally, about 793 million people  were undernourished in 2014-2016, down from 930 million in 2000-2002. 
  •  Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 63 per cent of undernourished people worldwide in 2014-2016. 
  •  In 2016, an estimated 155 million children under age 5 were stunted (low height for their age), 52 million were suffering from wasting (low weight for their height), and 41 million were overweight. Globally, the stunting rate fell from 33 per cent in 2000 to 23 per cent in 2016.
  •  The share of aid to agriculture in sector-allocable aid from member countries of the Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for economic Co-operation and Development fell from nearly 20 per cent in the mid-1980s to 7 per cent in 2015.


Leer más...

Saturday, January 6, 2018

Goal 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere

Giving people in every part of the world the support they need to lift themselves out of poverty in all its manifestations is the very essence of sustainable development. Goal 1 focuses on ending poverty through interrelated strategies, including the promotion of social protection systems, decent employment and building the resilience of the poor.

  • An estimated 767 million people lived below the extreme poverty line in 2013,  down from 1.7 billion people in 1999. This represents a reduction in the global  rate of extreme poverty from 28 per cent in 1999 to 11 per cent in 2013. 
  •  Almost 10 per cent of the employed population worldwide lived with their families  on less than 1.90 US dollars per person per day in 2016. Vulnerability was much  higher for younger workers: 9 per cent of adult workers and their families lived in extreme poverty compared to 15 per cent of youth workers.
  •  In 2016, only 22 per cent of the unemployed worldwide received unemployment benefits, 28 per cent of people with severe disabilities collected a disability pension, 35 per cent of children were covered by social protection, 41 per cent of women giving birth received maternity benefits, and 68 per cent of people above retirement age collected a pension. 
  •  economic losses from natural hazards are now reaching an average of 250 billion to 300 billion US dollars a year, with a disproportionate impact on small and vulnerable countries. 

Leer más...

Thursday, January 4, 2018

The Sustainable Development Goals Report 2017

The Sustainable Development Goals Report 2017 reviews progress made towards the 17 Goals in the second year of implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The report is based on the latest available data. It highlights both gains and challenges as the international community moves towards full realization of the ambitions and principles espoused in the 2030 Agenda. 
While considerable progress has been made over the past decade across all areas of development, the pace of progress observed in previous years is insufficient to fully meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and targets by 2030. Time is therefore of the essence. Moreover, as the following pages show, progress has not always been equitable. Advancements have been uneven across regions, between the sexes, and among people of different ages, wealth and locales, including urban and rural dwellers. Faster and more inclusive progress is needed to accomplish the bold vision articulated in the 2030 Agenda. 

Leer más...