Thursday, August 11, 2016

Finland, labour market gender

As for Finland, the labour market composition shows a high degree of gender segregation by occupation and sector: 48% of female employees work in the public sector where men represent only 21% of the employees. Female employment has suffered from the economic crisis much less than male employment: the number of employed women decreased by 23,000 units between 2008 and 2014, whereas the number of employed men decreased by 61,000 units in the same period. Since the male employment rate decreased by 3.1 points (from 72.3% in 2008 to 69.2% in 2014), but the female employment rate only by 1.1 points (from 68.9% in 2008 to 67.9% in 2014), the narrow gender employment gap has further diminished. Most of the lost jobs were in the male-dominated sector of manufacturing (-85,800 units) and, at the same time, the employment rate clearly increased in the female-dominated sectors of education (11,900 more jobs) and in human health and social work activities (15,300 more jobs). For this reason, nearly half of the employed population is represented by women, whose labour participation increased between 2008 and 2014 by 7.7 points, reaching 48.8%, due to the relevant layoffs in maledominated sectors. Interestingly, the number of men employed in human health and social work activities increased much more than the number of women from 2008 to 2014. At the same time, the share of women employed increased in the following sectors: construction (0.7 points, 7.9%); wholesale and retail trade (+0.2 points, 50.4%); real estate activities (5.5 points, 48.1%); education (0.9 points, 67.8%); arts, entertainment, and recreation (1.4 points, 52.6%); other service activities (1.3 points, 70.5%); and activities of households as employers (14.1 points, 63.5%). Women’s participation in maledominated sectors by contrast slightly decreased, and so did it in some femaledominated sectors such as social work activities (from 89.35% in 2008 to 86.7% in 2014), accommodation and food service activities (from 74% in 2008 to 69% in 2013), and financial and insurance activities (from 66.2% in 2008 to 60.8% in 2014). Finnish mothers still are the main beneficiaries of family leaves and the subjects in charge of household chores. Men are getting more active though. 

According to national sources, 63% of children aged 1 to 6 years were in formal day care in 2013. In 2008, 35% of female employees as against 27% in 2013 reported that they do much more home chores than their husband; 23% of male employees in 2008, as against 19% in 2013, reported that their wife does much more home chores than themselves. 

As for the GEI, Finland scored the second highest in the total GEI in 2005, 2010, and 2012, and the value constantly increased. In the sub-domain of work, Finland scores the fourth-best result; the value considerably increased from 2005 to 2010 and then slightly decreased, being still much higher (by 5.3 points) in 2012 than 2005. This is mainly due to the remarkably progress in the sub-components of segregation and quality of work.

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